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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-13-00118.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-13-00118.1 Schröder , M. , and Coauthors , 2018 : The GEWEX Water Vapor Assessment archive of water vapour products from satellite observations and reanalyses . Earth Syst. Sci. Data , 10 , 1093 – 1117 , https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1093-2018 . 10.5194/essd-10-1093-2018 Skamarock , W. C. , and Coauthors , 2008 : A description of the Advanced Research WRF version 3. NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-475+STR, 113 pp., https://doi.org/10.5065/D68S4MVH

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Xingwen Jiang, Jianchuan Shu, Xin Wang, Xiaomei Huang, and Qing Wu

values of the corresponding PC. To illustrate anomalies of circulation, tropical convection, and water vapor transport related to the first two modes, we calculate regressions of winds and vertically integrated water vapor transport against the detrended first two PCs ( Fig. 3 ). The rainfall anomalies related to the first principal component (PC1) indicate that the rainfall over SWC is positively correlated with that in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Japan, as well as the

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Masaki Katsumata, Biao Geng, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Fadli Syamsudin, Nurhayati, and Kunio Yoneyama

the western Pacific. This contrast between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in the positional relationship between precipitation and zonal wind is a well-known feature of the MJO ( Hendon and Salby 1994 ). Figure 2c plots the anomalies of column-integrated water vapor from a two-month average of JRA-55. While westward-migrating signals with relatively small zonal scales dominated in November, a positive anomaly with a zonal scale comparable to that of the MJO was found in December

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Hironari Kanamori, Tomo’omi Kumagai, Hatsuki Fujinami, Tetsuya Hiyama, and Tetsuzo Yasunari

monthly P , C , water vapor storage term, and the LWUR for each domain. The temporal change in precipitable water content W shows little variation and it is negligible compared with other components. Parameters P and C show similar variations over all domains. The seasonal cycles of P and C in BOL and BOC, exhibiting relatively higher values in November–January, can be associated with their enhancement by the northeasterly monsoon flow over BO in boreal winter (see Fig. 1 ). In BOL, the

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

connection between convective cell morphology and intraseasonal variability in the atmospheric state was considered using the bulk parameters of vertical wind shear, convective available potential energy (CAPE), and convective inhibition (CIN). We calculated the low-frequency evolution of these bulk parameters according to the following method. First, low-frequency anomalies in atmospheric state variables such as temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and zonal and meridional wind were calculated. These

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

( )′ denotes the difference between control simulation and deforestation experimental simulation. The first term is referred to as the thermodynamic component, which is associated with changes in water vapor. The second term is the dynamic component, which is associated with changes in convection. Notice that we use W m −2 as the unit for the terms in the water budget equations, including precipitation, which, divided by 28, is mm day −1 . f. Moist static energy To understand mechanisms that induce

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, and Shuanglin Li

007030050034 Saha , K. R. , and S. N. Bavadekar , 1973 : Water vapour budget and precipitation over the Arabian Sea during the northern summer . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 99 , 273 – 278 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49709942006 . 10.1002/qj.49709942006 Saji , N. H. , B. N. Goswami , P. N. Vinayachandran , and T. Yamagata , 1999 : A dipole mode in the tropical Indian Ocean . Nature , 401 , 360 – 363 . 10.1038/43854 Simmonds , I. , D. Bi , and P. Hope , 1999 : Atmospheric water vapor

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Chen Li, Jing-Jia Luo, Shuanglin Li, Harry Hendon, Oscar Alves, and Craig MacLachlan

.1175/1520-0442(2003)16<1141:MFEPCI>2.0.CO;2 Halpern , D. , and P. M. Woiceshyn , 2001 : Somali jet in the Arabian Sea, El Niño, and India rainfall . J. Climate , 14 , 434 – 441 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0434:SJITAS>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0434:SJITAS>2.0.CO;2 Huang , R. H. , Z. Z. Zhang , G. Huang , and B. H. Ren , 1998 : Characteristics of the water vapor transportation in East Asian monsoon region and its difference from that in South Asian monsoon region in summer (in

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

includes water vapor, cloud water, cloud ice, graupel, rain, and snow. We also run a few preliminary tests using a more complex microphysics scheme ( Thompson et al. 2008 ), two mass-flux convective schemes (multiscale Kain–Fritsch, new Tiedke) and the recommended tropical physics suite ( Wang et al. 2017 ). None provided better precipitation estimates than the chosen configuration over the MC (not shown). Table 1. Summary of the experiments completed for this study. All experiments refer to the

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See Yee Lim, Charline Marzin, Prince Xavier, Chih-Pei Chang, and Bertrand Timbal

strengthening of the Borneo vortex depleting water vapor farther north by transport around the Borneo vortex to support the heavy rainfall anomalies farther south. An indication of negative rainfall anomalies observed to the west of Sumatra offers the clue of a forced downward motion on the lee side of the mountain, which is not discernible in Chang et al.’s (2005a ) convective index data. The strengthening of the surge winds is general over the region but strongest along the southern SCS area ( Fig. 3h

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