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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, and H. E. Revercomb

1. Introduction From the earliest days of the ARM Program, water vapor and temperature measurements were considered among the highest priority measurements made at the ARM sites. The program founders recommended that these observations “be performed on a continuing, real-time basis throughout the experiment” so that the radiation models and cloud parameterizations could be evaluated over a wide range of atmospheric conditions ( DOE 1990 ; ARM 2016 , appendix A). Furthermore, the program

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D. D. Turner, J. E. M. Goldsmith, and R. A. Ferrare

-based differential absorption lidar for water vapor profiling: Assessment of accuracy, resolution, and meteorological applications . Appl. Opt. , 37 , 3825 – 3844 , doi: 10.1364/AO.37.003825 . Wulfmeyer , V. , S. Pal , D. D. Turner , and E. Wagner , 2010 : Can water vapour Raman lidar resolve profiles of turbulent variables in the convective boundary layer? Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 136 , 253 – 284 , doi: 10.1007/s10546-010-9494-z .

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Guang J. Zhang and Xiaoliang Song

detrained condensate also moistens the upper-tropospheric ambient atmosphere, and can thus modify the upper-tropospheric water vapor distribution. This has important implications for water vapor feedbacks on climate change ( Betts 1990 ; Lindzen 1990 ; Shine and Sinha 1991 ). Therefore, a proper treatment of convective microphysical processes in global climate models is crucial to reliable simulations of the present climate and future climate projection. The impact of convective detrainment on climate

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Ismail Gultepe, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Martin Gallagher, Luisa Ickes, and Darrel Baumgardner

radiation ( Curry and Ebert 1990 ), and the formation of ice crystals serves to remove water vapor from the lower troposphere ( Curry 1983 ; Blanchet and Girard 1994 , 1995 ). Girard and Blanchet (2001a , b ) estimate that diamond dust (freely falling larger ice crystals) may increase the downward flux of infrared radiation at the surface by as much as 60 W m −2 during the wintertime. The actual magnitude of ice fog’s climate effect remains largely unknown because current climate models still do not

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

droplets at temperatures as low as −10°C ( Strangeways 2006 ). By the early twentieth century, Wegener (1911) pointed out that, where ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets coexist, crystals grow at the expense of the droplets because the equilibrium water vapor pressure is lower over ice crystals than over liquid droplets. Subsequently, Bergeron used Wegener’s ideas as a basis of his “ice crystal precipitation theory,” originally described in his doctoral thesis ( Bergeron 1928 ), which

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

the world ( Petters and Wright 2015 ). Overlain are aerosol measurements from DeMott et al. (2016) . The data illustrate the range of atmospheric INP concentrations, representing conditions from the remote marine boundary layer to biologically active continental surface sites. [Figure from Hill et al. (2017 ). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.] For both liquid and ice clouds, the initial formation of cloud particles is then followed by processes that include interactions with water vapor

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Ronald B. Smith

blue “sky light” that we experience at sea level is reduced. The sky appears black. The sun’s direct beam is more intense at high altitudes and the shadows are darker due to reduced scattering and diffuse radiation. While less obvious to a mountain climber, the down-going longwave radiation also decreases with altitude. As less carbon dioxide and water vapor lie above a mountaintop, the down-going thermal radiation from these molecules in the wavelength range 3–50 μ m decreases quickly with height

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

is particularly prominent because of its widespread controlling influence on the stratosphere…it has important roles in determining the thermodynamic balance of the stratosphere, the lifetimes of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and some greenhouse gases, the temperature of the tropical tropopause, the water vapor entry into the stratosphere, the period of the tropical quasi-biennial oscillation, and the transport and redistribution within the stratosphere of aerosols, volcanic and radioactive debris

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Richard A. Anthes

Abstract

This paper describes the exciting period of discovery in the 1950s and 1960s in tropical meteorology, and the important role played by Joanne Malkus (Simpson) in her studies of cumulus convection and tropical cyclones. A key concept developed by Joanne, with Herbert Riehl, was that of the “hot tower.” Hot towers were deep tropical cumulonimbus clouds whose cores were undiluted by entrainment and thus carried heat and water vapor from the boundary layer to high in the troposphere. Joanne's observational work led to a major effort by a number of theoreticians and modelers in the 1960s and 1970s to incorporate the effects of the relatively small-scale but energetically important cumulus clouds in numerical models of tropical cyclones.

The important theory of conditional instability of the second kind, or CISK, and its contribution to tropical cyclone theory and modeling, is summarized. The CISK theory envisioned a cooperation between the tropical cyclone–scale circulation and the much smaller-scale convective clouds, including hot towers, that caused tropical cyclones to form and intensify. Although the CISK and hot tower theories were misunderstood and misused by some, they both contributed much to the development of tropical cyclone models and scientific understanding of these violent storms, and their general concepts and importance remain valid today.

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Randy A. Peppler, Kenneth E. Kehoe, Justin W. Monroe, Adam K. Theisen, and Sean T. Moore

concept was that comparisons involving multiple data streams should reveal more information about quality than single data stream self-consistency checks could allow. As such, a major function of the automated QMEs was to identify data anomalies in near–real time and to help data quality analysts identify the root cause of unusual behavior. The measurements produced by the QME were treated as official data products and were archived. An early QME example compared vertically integrated water vapor from

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