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Eui-Seok Chung and Brian J. Soden

1. Introduction It is well known that better understanding of characteristics of upper-tropospheric water vapor (UTWV) is an essential part in the prediction of future climate ( Held and Soden 2000 ). Since the trapping of longwave radiation is proportional to the logarithm of water vapor concentration, small spatiotemporal changes in water vapor in the upper troposphere can have a significant radiative impact (e.g., Sohn and Schmetz 2004 ). Thus, various in situ and remote sensing instruments

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Shuanggen Jin, Z. Li, and J. Cho

1. Introduction Atmospheric water vapor is a variable that interacts with the solar radiation and controls the thermodynamics and energy balance of the atmosphere. Therefore, water vapor plays a key role in the global hydrologic cycle and heat processes of the climate system. Integrated or precipitable water vapor (PWV) is an important indicator of water vapor variability in the lower troposphere and related climate processes. It represents the water vapor storage in the column of the

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Alia Iassamen, Henri Sauvageot, Nicolas Jeannin, and Soltane Ameur

. Whiteman , B. M. Lesht , F. J. Schmidlin , and F. Russo , 2006 : Absolute accuracy of water vapor measurements from six operational radiosonde types launched during AWEX-G, and implications for AIRS validation. J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D09S10 . doi:10.1029/2005JD006083 . Murphy , D. M. , and T. Koop , 2005 : Review of the vapour pressures of ice and supercooled water for atmospheric applications. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 131 , 1539 – 1565 . Peixoto , J. P. , A. H

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Catherine Prigent, Juan R. Pardo, and William B. Rossow

1. Introduction Operational meteorological satellites in polar orbits make microwave measurements in the O 2 band around 60 GHz and in the H 2 O line at 183.31 GHz for atmospheric temperature and water vapor sounding, respectively. These measurements complement infrared (IR) observations that are generally limited to cloud-free areas. For nowcasting and observations of severe weather, higher satellite orbits are suggested to provide the required revisit times. The problem is that adequate

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Luiz F. Sapucci

GPS network . J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. , 63 , 1295 – 1304 . Emardson , T. R. , 1998 : Studies of atmospheric water vapor using the Global Positioning System. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Tech. Rep. 339, Charmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 29 pp . Emardson , T. R. , and H. J. P. Derks , 2000 : On the relation between the wet delay and the integrated precipitable water vapour in the European atmosphere . Meteor. Appl. , 7 , 61 – 68 , doi:10.1017/S

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Daniel T. Lindsey, Louie Grasso, John F. Dostalek, and Jochen Kerkmann

1. Introduction Low-level water vapor plays a significant role in deep convection and other meteorological phenomena (e.g., Moller 2001 ). Starting in the 1970s, many techniques have been developed to better characterize vertical profiles of moisture using remotely sensed data from satellites. Among the simplest and most fundamental methods involves satellite radiance observations at spectral bands near 11 and 12 μ m. Both bands are considered to be in an atmospheric window, meaning that

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Steven Marcus, Jinwon Kim, Toshio Chin, David Danielson, and Jayme Laber

) model running typically at sub-10-km resolution, and a watershed-hydrology model nested within operational NWP data provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). Initial tests of the system showed that one of the keys for improving short-term QPF is accurate initial atmospheric water vapor fields for the regional NWP model ( Marcus et al. 2004 ). The work described here is directed toward application of GPS precipitable water vapor (PWV) retrievals to the IRFS. For the

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John Hanesiak, Mark Melsness, and Richard Raddatz

and energy exchange in Great Plains tallgrass prairie and wheat ecosystems. Agric. For. Meteor. , 131 , 162 – 179 . Hogg , D. C. , F. O. Guiraud , J. B. Snider , M. T. Decker , and E. R. Westwater , 1983 : A steerable dual-channel microwave radiometer for measurement of water vapor and liquid in the troposphere. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 22 , 789 – 806 . Jarlemark , P. , and G. Elgered , 2003 : Retrieval of atmospheric water vapour using a ground-based single

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Josefina Moraes Arraut and Prakki Satyamurty

1. Introduction Extensive regions of high precipitation receive moisture from the large-scale atmospheric flow in the lower troposphere. Some previous studies have identified important pathways through which moisture is brought to fuel precipitation in specific areas. D’Abreton and Tyson (1995) undertook a detailed study of the field of water vapor transport and its convergence in the interseasonal and interannual time scales to investigate the sources of moisture for the rainy season in

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B. Adeyemi

distribution of mean monthly precipitable water vapour and annual precipitation efficiency in Nigeria. Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bioklimatol. , 18 , 221 – 238 . Randel , D. L. , T. H. Vonder Haar , M. A. Ringerud , G. L. Stephens , T. J. Greenwald , and C. L. Combs , 1996 : A new global water vapor data set. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 1233 – 1246 . Reber , E. E. , and J. R. Swope , 1972 : On the correlation of the total precipitable water in a vertical column and absolute

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