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J. M. Livingston, B. Schmid, P. B. Russell, J. R. Podolske, J. Redemann, and G. S. Diskin

1. Introduction Water vapor measurements by sun photometry using the 940-nm water vapor absorption band have been compared to in situ and other remote (e.g., microwave) measurements in several previous publications (e.g., Schmid et al. 2000 , 2001 , 2003a , b , 2006 ; Redemann et al. 2003 ; Livingston et al. 2000 , 2003 , 2007 ). Those comparisons were all restricted to sun photometer altitudes <∼6 km, with water vapor columns ∼0.1 to 5 g cm −2 , and water vapor densities ∼0.1 to 17 g

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Will Cantrell, Eli Ochshorn, Alexander Kostinski, and Keith Bozin

1. Introduction Below the melting point, the equilibrium vapor pressure (hereafter referred to simply as vapor pressure) of liquid water exceeds that of ice at the same temperature. Because of that difference in vapor pressure, in clouds, once any droplet freezes, it grows by condensation at the expense of surrounding droplets that have not frozen. To calculate the rate at which the mass transfer proceeds, both vapor pressures must be known as it is the difference (i.e., gradient) that drives

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Alexander Haefele and Niklaus Kämpfer

1. Introduction Water vapor is the most important natural greenhouse gas of the atmosphere and has a large impact on its radiative properties and hence on its thermodynamic balance. Despite the importance of water vapor in the climate system and weather forecasting, there is no technique available, neither ground-based nor spaceborne, that can provide continuous measurements of the humidity profile under all weather conditions. Ground-based microwave radiometers measuring the pressure

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David N. Whiteman, Kurt Rush, Igor Veselovskii, Martin Cadirola, Joseph Comer, John R. Potter, and Rebecca Tola

1. Introduction Raman lidar is now regarded as one of the leading technologies for atmospheric profiling of water vapor ( Melfi et al. 1989 ; Whiteman et al. 1992 ; Goldsmith et al. 1998 ; Turner et al. 2000 ), cirrus clouds ( Ansmann et al. 1992a ; Reichardt et al. 2002 ; Whiteman et al. 2004 ), aerosols ( Ansmann et al. 1990 ; Ferrare et al. 2006 ), temperature ( Arshinov et al. 2005 ; Behrendt et al. 2002 ; Di Girolamo et al. 2004 ), and other atmospheric constituents or properties

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Amin R. Nehrir, Kevin S. Repasky, John L. Carlsten, Michael D. Obland, and Joseph A. Shaw

1. Introduction Water vapor in the lower troposphere plays an important role in many earth system processes associated with the radiation budget and climate, moisture transport and the hydrologic cycle, and weather ( Trenberth et al. 2007 ; Dabberdt and Schlatter 1996 ). Water vapor is primarily contained within the lowest 3 km of the troposphere with high temporal and spatial fluxes ( Dabberdt and Schlatter 1996 ; Weckwerth et al. 1999 ). Radiosonde launches are currently used to obtain

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Andreas Behrendt, Volker Wulfmeyer, Thorsten Schaberl, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Christoph Kiemle, Gerhard Ehret, Cyrille Flamant, Susan Kooi, Syed Ismail, Richard Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, and David N. Whiteman

: First lidar measurements of water vapour and aerosols from a high-altitude aircraft. OSA Tech. Digest, Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere Paper ThA4, 212–214 . Browell, E. V. , and Coauthors , 1997 : LASE validation experiment. Advances in Atmospheric Remote Sensing with Lidar, A. Ansmann et al., Eds., Springer Verlag, 289–295 . Bruneau, D. , Cazeneuve H. , Loth C. , and Pelon J. , 1991 : Double-pulse dual-wavelength alexandrite laser for atmospheric water vapor measurement

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Jing Feng and Yi Huang

1. Introduction Despite its scarcity, stratospheric water vapor is an important atmospheric composition because of its radiative and chemical effects. It radiatively cools the stratosphere but potentially warms the troposphere and surface ( Dvortsov and Solomon 2001 ; Dessler et al. 1995 ; Huang et al. 2016 ). It also may affect total ozone loss rate through several chemical processes ( Anderson et al. 2012 ). However, current satellite observations have limited ability to detect

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David R. Brooks, Forrest M. Mims III, and Richard Roettger

1. Introduction Of all the earth’s greenhouse gases, both anthropogenic and natural, water vapor is the most important. However, the global distribution and variability of total precipitable atmospheric water vapor (PW) is still significantly uncertain. A summary of current knowledge of PW and techniques used to measure it can be found in a report published by the American Geophysical Union ( Mockler 1995 ). Space-based measurements are critical for global monitoring of PW. However, as with

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Thierry Leblanc, I. Stuart McDermid, and Robin A. Aspey

1. Introduction Water vapor has long been identified as a key constituent of the atmosphere. Because of its particular shape, the water vapor molecule strongly absorbs infrared radiation and consequently water vapor constitutes a primary greenhouse gas. Studies have reported (e.g., de Forster and Shine 1999 ) that a global increase in lower-stratospheric H 2 O mixing ratio, similar to that observed locally since 1981 ( Oltmans and Hofmann 1995 ), would contribute to a surface warming reaching

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Rosario Q. Iannone, Daniele Romanini, Samir Kassi, Harro A. J. Meijer, and Erik R. Th Kerstel

1. Introduction Water vapor is a key element in the global climate, as it is the most active greenhouse gas. In the troposphere, water is responsible for the global movement of latent heat and it affects cloud cover, which controls radiation and cooling rates. In the stratosphere, water vapor affects ozone levels through its involvement in the production of odd-hydrogen and the formation of stratospheric clouds ( Kirk-Davidoff et al. 1999 ; Forster and Shine 2002 ). In situ measurements of

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