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Christopher E. Holloway and J. David Neelin

1. Introduction A number of studies indicate that moist convection is sensitive to free-tropospheric water vapor, including observational analyses ( Austin 1948 ; Malkus 1954 ; Brown and Zhang 1997 ; Sherwood 1999 ; Parsons et al. 2000 ; Bretherton et al. 2004 ; Sherwood et al. 2004 ) and studies using cloud-system-resolving models (CSRMs; Tompkins 2001b ; Grabowski 2003 ; Derbyshire et al. 2004 ). This dependence is apparently not well represented in global climate models ( Derbyshire

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Harald Sodemann

1. Introduction Water in the atmosphere is key for many feedbacks in the climate system. The atmospheric water reservoir is continuously depleted and replenished by precipitation and evaporation. A fundamentally relevant quantity of this system is the actual time that water molecules spend in the atmosphere between evaporation and precipitation, termed here the atmospheric lifetime of water vapor , or simply lifetime , often also referred to as the residence time of water vapor ( Trenberth

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Luke Oman, Darryn W. Waugh, Steven Pawson, Richard S. Stolarski, and J. Eric Nielsen

, H. , S. Solomon , and R. R. Garcia , 1988 : The role of molecular hydrogen and methane oxidation in the water vapour budget of the stratosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 114 , 281 – 295 . Oltmans , S. J. , H. Vömel , D. J. Hofmann , K. Rosenlof , and D. Kley , 2000 : The increase in stratospheric water vapor from balloon borne frostpoint hygrometer measurements at Washington, D.C. and Boulder, Colorado. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 27 , 3453 – 3456 . Pawson , S

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Syed Ismail, Richard A. Ferrare, Edward V. Browell, Gao Chen, Bruce Anderson, Susan A. Kooi, Anthony Notari, Carolyn F. Butler, Sharon Burton, Marta Fenn, Jason P. Dunion, Gerry Heymsfield, T. N. Krishnamurti, and Mrinal K. Biswas

turn can influence cloud microphysics, latent heat release, vertical transport and convection development, and precipitation. Fields of water vapor concentration are a key component for understanding processes of precipitation, evaporation, and latent heat release in cloud systems. The lack of adequate and accurate moisture measurements with sufficient vertical and horizontal resolutions limits the ability of most numerical models to represent these processes. Krishnamurti et al. (1994) found

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Christopher E. Holloway and J. David Neelin

observational studies have also found an empirical relationship between tropical column water vapor (CWV) and precipitation ( Bretherton et al. 2004 ; Peters and Neelin 2006 ; Neelin et al. 2009 ). However, the satellite data used in these studies are at twice-daily or coarser temporal resolution, and they do not attempt to analyze temporal relationships between different variables. Sherwood and Wahrlich (1999) used rawinsondes along with satellite data to show that CWV is high within 3 h of convective

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John Austin, John Wilson, Feng Li, and Holger Vömel

eruptions as a cause of increased stratospheric water vapor. J. Climate , 16 , 3525 – 3534 . Lean , J. , J. Beer , and R. S. Bradley , 1995 : Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 22 , 3195 – 3198 . Le Texier , H. , S. Solomon , and R. R. Garcia , 1988 : The role of molecular hydrogen and methane oxidation in the water vapour budget of the stratosphere. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 114 , 281 – 295 . Lin , S

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James B. Gilmore

1. Introduction Rainfall and water vapor are central parts of Earth’s hydrological cycle and understanding their relationship remains an important challenge ( Raymond 2000 ; Held and Soden 2006 ; Allan and Soden 2008 ). One approach to this problem is to examine oceanic rainfall P as a function of column water vapor w ( Bretherton et al. 2004 ). The resulting curve, called the P – w relationship, probes the conversion of water vapor to rainfall, where w acts as both a source and sink

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Katrina S. Virts and Robert A. Houze Jr.

–Dobson Circulation. The TTL is characterized by extremely low temperatures ( Anthes et al. 2008 ; Kim and Son 2012 ), and air ascending through the TTL undergoes freeze drying, producing the low stratospheric water vapor concentrations noted by Brewer (1949) . The mean level of neutral buoyancy (LNB) in convective regions of the tropics lies between 12 and 14 km, just below TTL base ( Takahashi and Luo 2014 ). Divergent outflow from regions of tropical deep convection occurs in the upper troposphere and at TTL

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Joseph Galewsky

temperature of last saturation but do not provide many additional potentially useful constraints on parameters such as the degree of moistening during transport from the last-saturation point or on the microphysical processes at the point of last saturation. Measurements of water vapor isotopic composition (e.g., Moyer et al. 1996 ; Webster and Heymsfield 2003 ; Worden et al. 2007 ; Sayres et al. 2010 ; Galewsky et al. 2007 , 2011 ) can potentially provide such constraints, however, and the goal of

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Olivier Pauluis

temperature and humidity as well as the partitioning of the energy transport between sensible and latent heat. Previous studies ( Pauluis and Held 2002a , b ; Goody 2003 ) have shown that the presence of water vapor greatly reduces the ability of the atmosphere to convert internal energy into kinetic energy. This paper argues that the impact of water vapor on the production of kinetic energy can be captured by idealized thermodynamic cycles. The Carnot cycle, named after Sadi Carnot, is the best known

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