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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

-ORIG simulations ( Fig. 10b ). However, average latent heating changes from the OFF-DECAY simulations are still 29.7% larger than values from WRF-ORIG simulations ( Fig. 9b ). These results show that overestimation of the latent heating change in offline simulations occurs because the atmosphere cannot respond to a greater flux of moisture from the surface with irrigation. This results in an unrealistically large water vapor gradient that drives exaggerated latent heat flux values over irrigated fields. Fig

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

on the size of the basin that is considered because larger areas have more opportunity for locally evapotranspired water vapor to fall as precipitation within the defined basin ( Brubaker et al. 2001 ; Dirmeyer and Brubaker 1999 ; Dominguez et al. 2006 ). Recycling ratios can range from zero for an infinitely small area to one for the entire planet ( Brubaker et al. 1993 , 2001 ; Eltahir and Bras 1994 ). When considering the domain over which to quantify the amount of precipitation recycling

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

–surface radiative fluxes (ISCCP–FD–SRF; Zhang et al. 2004 ) dataset at 2.5° spatial resolution and 3-hourly temporal resolution. We approximate the surface specific humidity from the TOVS precipitable water vapor estimate for the 200-hPa layer covering the surface by assuming a constant relative humidity (RH) profile and lapsing to the surface temperature and pressure. Over land, RS estimates of wind currently do not exist, which is why we use reanalysis-based inputs from the PGF. The f c is derived from

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

Baklanov, A. A. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The nature, theory, and modeling of atmospheric planetary boundary layers . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 92 , 123 – 128 . Baldocchi, D. , and Coauthors , 2001 : FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 82 , 2415 – 2434 . Beljaars, A. C. M. , and Viterbo P. , 1998 : Role of the boundary layer in a numerical weather

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