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Armin Aulinger, Volker Matthias, and Markus Quante

the atmosphere over large distances either as gaseous species or while bound to fine particles. They are mainly generated by incomplete combustion of organic matter. Small amounts are also present in crude oil and engine fuels. Almost all of the sources are anthropogenic—for example, road transport, energy production, and waste incineration ( Wild and Jones 1995 ). Their lifetime in the atmosphere depends on their vapor pressure, their affinity to water and organic solvents, and their resistance

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Jesse O. Bash, Patricia Bresnahan, and David R. Miller

more realistic treatment of sources and sinks, and accounts for biological and soil mercury storage and transport processes. The model accommodates the movement between surface media storage and the flux between the atmosphere and surface interface. Transfer velocities are used to describe the atmosphere–surface water flux and atmosphere–vegetation flux for mercury and other volatile species where concentration gradients are applicable. This approach is applied to mercury as well as other volatile

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Francis S. Binkowski, Saravanan Arunachalam, Zachariah Adelman, and Joseph P. Pinto

atmospheric aerosol. Atmos. Environ. , 29 , 875 – 883 . Michalsky , J. J. , J. C. Liljegren , and L. C. Harrison , 1995 : A comparison of sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site. J. Geophys. Res. , 100 , 25995 – 26003 . Sander , S. P. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies, Evaluation Number 14. NASA Jet

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M. Talat Odman, Yongtao Hu, Alper Unal, Armistead G. Russell, and James W. Boylan

light extinction or haze index. It has been determined that particles of different size and chemical composition can affect visibility very differently ( Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments 2000 ). In particular, PM 2.5 can scatter and absorb light very efficiently. The contributions of fine sulfate and nitrate particles to haze can be substantial especially in the presence of water vapor. Elemental and organic carbon is also important in visibility degradation while most other

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