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Ronald B. Smith and Jason P. Evans

earth. The range is relatively narrow and oriented perpendicular to the flow. The zone would undoubtedly make an excellent ‘laboratory’ for the verification of theoretical models of airflow over mountain and the resulting precipitation and cloudiness patterns.” The goal of this study is to determine the isotope fractionation of water vapor crossing the southern Andes and to use this information to estimate the drying ratio and test and calibrate a physical model of orographic precipitation. Because

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A. Verhoef, A. Diaz-Espejo, J. R. Knight, L. Villagarcía, and J. E. Fernández

1. Introduction A gain of water in the soil surface layer, not caused by rainfall or irrigation, can be caused by dew deposition or vapor adsorption. Dew deposition is a phenomenon recorded for most soil and climate types ( Jacobs et al. 1994 , 1999 ). It occurs during the night when dewpoint is reached, and it results in a discernable wetting of the surface ( Monteith 1957 ). Vapor adsorption is an important phenomenon in arid and semiarid regions ( Kosmas et al. 1998 , 2001 ; Agam and

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Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

precipitation days decreased alongside an increase in very heavy precipitation over the past 30 years. These results indicate that the precipitation regime of the region is changing. One potential explanation for the changing Northeast precipitation regime is a change in the magnitude of water vapor delivered to the region. Precipitation is dependent on an atmospheric moisture source to condense and precipitate. Warmer temperatures, such as those observed and projected in models of anthropogenic global

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A. Rinke, C. Melsheimer, K. Dethloff, and G. Heygster

Heygster G. , 2006 : Retrieval of total water vapour over the Arctic from space-borne microwave radiometer data. Polar Research Rep. 520, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany, 85–88 . Melsheimer, C. , and Heygster G. , 2008 : Improved retrieval of total water vapor over polar regions from AMSU-B microwave radiometer data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 46 , 2307 – 2322 . doi:10.1109/TGRS.2008.918013 . 10.1109/TGRS.2008.918013 Miao, J. , Kunzi

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J. P. Evans and R. B. Smith

parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Being a dominantly arid area, relatively little precipitation recycling occurs over the land and the surrounding water bodies are major contributors to atmospheric water vapor. To the northwest is the Black Sea, to the northeast is the Caspian Sea, to the west is the Mediterranean, and to the south is the Persian Gulf. While it has been generally accepted that the area is dominated by storm systems that move in from the Mediterranean Sea, earlier modeling work

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F. Martin Ralph and Thomas J. Galarneau Jr.

New Mexico mostly occurred during the summer monsoon season ( Ralph et al. 2014 ). Despite the large body of published work on the North American monsoon, gaps remain in understanding, observations, weather predictions, and climate projections, particularly as it pertains to the transport of water vapor to the monsoon region. Onset of the North American monsoon typically occurs as the continental anticyclone is established over the southwestern United States (e.g., Galarneau et al. 2008

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, and Elie Bou-Zeid

1. Introduction Water vapor in the atmosphere plays critical roles in cloud formation, precipitation, and the atmospheric radiation budget. The correct initialization of atmospheric water vapor, for example, directly affects the forecast accuracy of precipitation in terms of occurrence and amount ( Hanesiak et al. 2010 ). Water vapor also plays a central role in analyses of Earth’s climate, especially in connection with the response of the climate system to warming ( Held and Soden 2006 ). In

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Sasha Ivans, Lawrence Hipps, A. Joshua Leffler, and Carolyn Y. Ivans

ecosystem exchange (NEE) increased for both species at roughly the same rate. In this current study, the main objective is to examine the response of water vapor and CO 2 exchanges to seasonal changes of precipitation and intermittent rain events in crested wheatgrass ( Agropyron desertorum ), sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata ), and juniper ( Juniperus osteosperma ) ecosystems using eddy covariance measurements. Evaluation of these exchanges and their response to the intermittency of precipitation is

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J. P. Evans

water vapor contributing to some of these storm events is dominated by a southerly flux. In fact, Evans and Smith (2006) showed that though a relatively small number of events are dominated by southerly fluxes, these events are very large and, hence, any change in the number of these events can have a significant influence on the total of freshwater resources within the Euphrates–Tigris watershed. Growing acceptance of the reality of global warming has recently led to an increase in the

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R. Rosolem, W. J. Shuttleworth, M. Zreda, T. E. Franz, X. Zeng, and S. A. Kurc

: Terrestrial Hydrometeorology . John Wiley & Sons, 448 pp. Shuttleworth, W. J. , Rosolem R. , Zreda M. , and Franz T. , 2013 : The Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code (COSMIC) for use in data assimilation . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. , 10 , 1097 – 1125 , doi:10.5194/hessd-10-1097-2013 . Tomasi, C. , 1977 : Precipitable water vapor in atmospheres characterized by temperature inversions . J. Appl. Meteor. , 16 , 237 – 243 . Tomasi, C. , 1978 : On the water vapour absorption

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