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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

include the work of Pleim and Xiu (2003) and that of McNider et al. (1994) . Alapaty et al. (2001b) proposed and tested a modified technique that allowed for continuous assimilation of surface observations to improve surface layer prediction. In their technique, Alapaty et al. (2001b) directly assimilated the surface layer temperature and the water vapor mixing ratio into the model’s lowest atmospheric layer using analyzed surface data. They calculated the surface flux adjustments of sensible

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

water vapor fluxes are based on the urban surface temperature from the previous time step T n g and are used to force the soil temperature equations ( section 2e ). The solution of the soil temperature equations yields a new surface temperature T n +1 g that is used to update the turbulent fluxes. The storage heat flux Q S for each urban surface is determined as a residual from the updated fluxes: e. Roof, wall, road, and snow temperatures The solution for impervious and pervious roads follows

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