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Gang Chen, Isaac M. Held, and Walter A. Robinson

equivalent barotropic structure in the troposphere, is often referred to as a shift toward a more positive phase of an annular mode. Idealized models generate poleward shifts in the westerlies in response to increases in stratospheric temperature gradients ( Polvani and Kushner 2002 ; Kushner and Polvani 2004 ; Haigh et al. 2005 ), increases in surface temperature gradients ( Son and Lee 2005 ), increases in water vapor and the associated latent heating ( Frierson et al. 2006 ), and increases in the

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John Marshall, David Ferreira, J-M. Campin, and Daniel Enderton

. Saravanan , R. , and J. C. McWilliams , 1998 : Advective ocean–atmosphere interaction: An analytical stochastic model with implications for decadal variability. J. Climate , 11 , 165 – 188 . Schneider , T. , K. L. Smith , P. A. O’Gorman , and C. C. Walker , 2006 : A climatology of tropospheric zonal-mean water vapor fields and fluxes in isentropic coordinates. J. Climate , 19 , 5917 – 5932 . Smith , R. S. , C. Dubois , and J. Marotzke , 2006 : Global climate and ocean

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