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Barrett L. Smith, Sandra E. Yuter, Paul J. Neiman, and D. E. Kingsmill

California Landfalling Jets Experiment (CALJET) and the Pacific Landfalling Jets Experiment (PACJET; Ralph et al. 1999 ; Neiman et al. 2002 , 2005 ) investigated the prefrontal low-level jet (LLJ) associated with Pacific storm systems. The LLJ, which forms in response to restoring thermal wind balance, can lead to extreme flooding when it transports water vapor toward a mountain range ( Buzzi et al. 1998 ; Doswell et al. 1998 ; Lin et al. 2001 ; Rotunno and Ferretti 2001 ; White et al. 2003

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F. Couvreux, F. Guichard, P. H. Austin, and F. Chen

1. Introduction Water vapor variability was the main focus of the International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002), which took place in May–June 2002 over the southern Great Plains of the United States ( Weckwerth et al. 2004 ). This field project gathered together most of the techniques for measuring water vapor. We address water vapor variability at the mesoscale (scales larger than thermals, ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers). Comparatively few investigations have considered this

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S. K. Deb, C. M. Kishtawal, and P. K. Pal

. (2001) had shown using this model that on average, assimilation of the GOES winds leads to statistically significant improvements for all forecast periods, with the relative reductions in track error ranging from 5% at 12 h to 12% at 36 h. The initiation of recent operational derivation of water vapor winds ( Kishtawal et al. 2009 ) from the water vapor imagers from Indian geostationary satellite Kalpana-1 at the Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad, India, has given us an opportunity

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Haixia Liu, Ming Xue, R. James Purser, and David F. Parrish

1. Introduction The poor knowledge of finescale spatial and temporal distributions of water vapor is partly responsible for the slow improvement in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF). The International H 2 O Project (IHOP_2002, 13 May through 25 June 2002; Weckwerth et al. 2004 ) was conducted over the central Great Plains of the United States to investigate, as one of its goals, the four-dimensional distribution of atmospheric water vapor and its impact on QPF. During IHOP_2002, a

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Hiroyuki Iwasaki, Tomoki Nii, Tomonori Sato, Fujio Kimura, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Ichirow Kaihotsu, and Toshio Koike

atmosphere is more unstable at night over northern Bangladesh ( Kataoka and Satomura 2005 ) and north Kanto District ( Iwasaki and Miki 2002 ) due to an increase in the water vapor in the boundary layer, which is a favorable condition for the development of deep convection. A possible source of the water vapor is evapotranspiration ( Sasaki and Kimura 2001 ; Iwasaki and Miki 2001 , 2002 ). These studies have clarified that the diurnal variation of water vapor and soil moisture are also important to

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George H. Bryan

1. Introduction It is possible to derive several different thermodynamical variables that are conserved during moist adiabatic processes. The most commonly used variable in research and operational forecasting is equivalent potential temperature, or θ e . Conceptually, θ e is the potential temperature an air parcel would have if all the water vapor were condensed by lifting the parcel to zero pressure. (Typically, the ice phase is neglected, and any freezing of the condensed water at low

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F. J. W. WHIPPLE

Diego stantions had a t,otal rainfall well above the normal forwith a record 27 years longer than that of Los Angeles. t,he, entire season.FORMULAE FOR THE VAPOUR PRESSURE OF ICE AND OF WATER BELOW 0 OC.By F. J. W. WHIPPLE[K e a Observatory, Richmond. Surrey. England. hlsrrh 21, 19271In the h.IONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW, Oc.tober, 1924(pp. 488-490), Doctor Mr~sliburn published R valuablediscussion of t,he vapour pressure of ice sild of materbelow the freezing point,. The formulaewhich he obt,ained from t

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Jason A. Otkin, William E. Lewis, Allen J. Lenzen, Brian D. McNoldy, and Sharanya J. Majumdar

verification metrics such as track and intensity errors to evaluate the model sensitivity to different parameterization schemes and assumptions, few have done so using satellite observations even though they provide valuable information about TC intensity and the spatial and temporal distribution of clouds and water vapor. Airborne and land-based Doppler radars also provide detailed information about the cloud field; however, their limited spatial coverage and incomplete sampling hinders their use as a

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Tsing-Chang Chen

OCTOBER 1985 TSING-CHANG CHEN 1801Global Water Vapor Flux and Maintenance during FGGE TSING-CHANG CHENDepartment of Earth Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011(Manuscript received 1 December 1984, in final form 6 May 1985)ABSTRACT The relative humidity, temperature and wind fields generated by the First Global GARP Experiment (FGGE)IIl-b analysis of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL

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Alexander E. MacDonald, Yuanfu Xie, and Randolph H. Ware

1. Introduction It has been shown that vertically integrated water vapor can be determined from the constellation of GPS satellites by isolating the effects of signal delay due to atmospheric water vapor ( Bevis et al. 1992 ). Recently, techniques have been developed to determine the amount of phase delay between surface receivers and each of a number of the satellites that are in view ( Alber et al. 2000 ; Braun et al. 2001 , hereafter BRW). With a good estimate of the three-dimensional mass

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