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M. Issa Lélé, Lance M. Leslie, and Peter J. Lamb

.g., Webster 1994 ) and also because the natural variability of weather and climate at both regional and global scales is regulated by the water cycle (e.g., Eltahir and Bras 1996 ). Accordingly, research on water vapor flux and its convergence has both scientific and societal value. The WAM rainfall results from the moisture fluxes originating from many sources during the summer season. Over 80% of the annual precipitation falls during June–September when the intertropical front (ITF) extends farther

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John G. Dwyer, Michela Biasutti, and Adam H. Sobel

strength and extent of the Hadley cell affecting the amplitude of precipitation and SST via changes in the surface wind speed on turbulent surface fluxes; an increase in low-level water vapor vertically advected by the Hadley cell leading to an increase in the amplitude of precipitation; changes in the timing and strength of the annual cycle of surface heat fluxes affecting the annual cycle of surface temperature; increased vertical stability later in the year due to enhanced warming aloft delaying the

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Peter J. Lamb, Diane H. Portis, and Abraham Zangvil

1. Introduction Central to atmospheric behavior on a range of space and time scales is the relative importance of horizontal water vapor advection versus the vertical moisture flux from the earth’s land and ocean surfaces. At the small-scale extreme, the interaction of these moisture sources and their associated thermodynamic and dynamic processes contributes to the development of shallow cumulus clouds (e.g., Krishnamurti et al. 1980 ; Rabin et al. 1990 ; Chen and Avissar 1994 ; Berg and

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Abdou L. Dieng, Saidou M. Sall, Laurence Eymard, Marion Leduc-Leballeur, and Alban Lazar

anomalies (after removing the seasonal trend), but the presence of Tb and water vapor anomalies are checked along the path of the 700-hPa tracked vortex; 700-hPa relative vorticity, temporarily filtered between 2 and 6 days and checking presence of Tb and water vapor anomalies as done in the previous step; and Tb anomalies, then checking the presence of a vorticity maximum and water vapor anomalies along the track of Tb anomalies. The threshold choice is a delicate topic because it depends on several

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Kerry H. Cook and Edward K. Vizy

evolution . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 94 , 67 – 80 . Todd , M. , and R. Washington , 1999 : Circulation anomalies associated with tropical-temperate troughs in southern Africa and the south west Indian Ocean . Climate Dyn. , 15 , 937 – 951 . Todd , M. , R. Washington , and P. I. Palmer , 2004 : Water vapour transport associated with tropical-temperate trough systems over southern Africa and the southwest Indian Ocean . Int. J. Climatol. , 24 , 555 – 568 . Vizy , E. K. , and K. H

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Rosalind Cornforth, Douglas J. Parker, Mariane Diop-Kane, Andreas H. Fink, Jean-Philippe Lafore, Arlene Laing, Ernest Afiesimama, Jim Caughey, Aida Diongue-Niang, Abdou Kassimou, Peter Lamb, Benjamin Lamptey, Zilore Mumba, Ifeanyi Nnodu, Jerome Omotosho, Steve Palmer, Patrick Parrish, Leon-Guy Razafindrakoto, Wassila Thiaw, Chris Thorncroft, and Adrian Tompkins

meningitis prediction, are used to illustrate the methods. The next chapter of The Forecasters’ Handbook introduces the reader to all kinds of satellite sensors (chapter 9), which are an inevitable and growing source of information in a ground and upper-air data-sparse region. The lead author also led the COMET online tropical meteorology textbook ( www.meted.ucar.edu ) development, and this is reflected in a scholarly review on the use of more classical (e.g., visible, infrared, and water vapor images

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Lisa Hannak, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anke Kniffka, and Gregor Pante

vertical levels. YoTC model fields used here are cloud area fraction, wind, temperature ( T ), specific humidity ( q ), pressure ( p ), and surface net solar radiation as well as tendencies of q and T . Relative humidity (RH) was computed according to , where e is water vapor pressure and E saturation vapor pressure, using A key parameter analyzed here is low-level cloud cover, which is strongly controlled by the subgrid cloud scheme. To illustrate the range of schemes used, the online

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