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B. R. Bean, C. B. Emmanuel, R. O. Gilmer, and R. E. Megavin

532 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VoLvs!~5The Spatial and Temporal Variations of the Turbulent Fluxesof Heat, Momentum and Water Vapor over Lake OntarioB. R. B~x~, C. B. EM_M. ANUEL, R. O. GI~a~_~ AND R. E. McGAw~ En~ron~ncntal Research Laboratories, NOAA, Boulder, Colo. 80302 (Manuscript received 29 May 1974, in revised form 12 February 1975)ABSTRACT During the 1972 IFYGL "alert" periods, the NOAA

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Tsing-Chang Chen, James Pfaendtner, and Su-Ping Weng

Office, Washington, DC, 163Peixrto, J. P., 1973: Atmospheric vapour flux computations for hy drological purposes. WMO Publ. No. 357, 83 pp.--, and A. H. Oort, 1992: Physics of Climate. Amer. Inst. Phys., New York, 520 pp.Rosen, R. D., and A. S. Omolago, 1981: Exchange of water vapor between land and ocean in the Northern Hemisphere. J. Geo phys. Res., g6(C12), 12 147-12 152.Susskind, J., and J. Pfaendtner, 1989: Impact of interactive physical retrievals on NWP. Report on the Joint ECMWF

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S. C. Ling and T. W. Kao

water vapor was obta/ned.1. Introduction Moisture and heat transfer from the ocean to the airis controlled by the atmospheric surface boundary layer.Therefore, it is important to be able to parameterize themechanics of this layer which is usually taken to be30-100 m thick above the sea surface. In this layer theturbulent flow field is characterized by the turbulentshear stress produced by the form drag on the waves.Through the form drag substantial energy is transferredfrom the wind to the waves

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W. Timothy Liu and Pearn P. Niiler

determine monthly mean marine surface-layer humidity,which is essential in the specification of surface latent heat flux, from total water vapor in the atmosphericcolumn measured by space-borne sensors. Good correlation between the two quantities was found inexamining the humidity soundings from radiosonde reports of mid-ocean island stations and weather ships.The relation agrees with that obtained from satellite (Seasat) data and ship reports averaged over 2- areasand a 92-day period in the North

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Allen H. Schooley

.022 cm at 15 m sec-LIt is postulated that water vapor diffusion at sea, within this range of wind speed, is principally from wavelets in the capillary-gravity transition region.1. Introduction Fig. 1 illustrates the concept of an effective meanmolecular diffusion sublayer of thickness /5 in the airover a wind-disturbed water surface having a bulktemperature Tw. The sublayer is a thin laminar boundary layer underlying a turbulent wind field of temperature Ta, relative humidity H, and mean velocity

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Young-Ho Seung

theoretical models. It is shown that atmospheric cooling, whichoccur~ during outbreaks of cold, dry coatincntal air, can be localized by air modification induced by oceanicheat and water vapor transport. The resulting scale of cooling is comparable to the cross-shore scale of theobserved gyre. The density structure of the underlying water mass is then altered by this localized cooling andalso by horizontal mixing The model results compare reasonably well with observationa. Finally, it is demo~that the

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E. Leavitt

are discussed. Strong similarities exist between dimensionless humidity and horizontal windvelocity spectra and between dimensionless cospectra of the water vapor flux and the momentum flux. Incontrast, the peaks of the temperature spectra and the sensible heat flux cospectra occur at frequencies anorder of magnitude greater than those of the other two variables. These differences are related to the meanvertical planetary boundary layer profiles of the three variables as well as to the effects of

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Stefan Hastenrath and Peter J. Lamb

-54).Ramage, C. S., and C. V. R. Raman, 1972: Meteorological Atlas of the International Indian Ocean Expedition, Vol. 2, Upper Air. National Science Foundation, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 121 charts.Saha, K., 1970: Air and water vapor transport across the equator in western Indian Ocean during Northern summer. Tellus, 22, 681-687. , and S. N. Bavadekar, 1973: Water vapour budget and precipitation over the Arabian Sea during Northern summer. Quart J. Roy. Meteor. $oc., 99, 273-278.Shukla, J

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Syukuro Manabe, Kirk Bryan, and Michael J. Spelman

as well as the troposphere. For horizontal finite differencing, the regular latitudelongitude grid is used. To prevent linear computational instability in the time integration, Fourier filteringis applied in the longitudinal direction to all prognostic variables in higher latitudes such that the effectivegrid size of the model is approximately 500 km everywhere. For the computation of radiative transfer, the distribution of water vapor, which is determined by theprognostic system of water

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Jack A. C. Kaiser

.Atmospheric water vapor and sea surface roughness effects are included. The model agrees with theexperimental values of D/I to within 5% of/for all the data, and it reproduces the variation of this ratiowith solar zenith angle and cloud cover.1. Introduction Very few data are readily available concerningthe diurnal variation of wide-band underwater downwelling and upwelling irradiance and the effects ofthe degree of cloudiness on these quantities. Forheat balance studies, these data are vitally

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