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Rolf H. Langland, Christopher Velden, Patricia M. Pauley, and Howard Berger

wind observations in the free atmosphere over most of the world’s oceanic areas, including TC development regions ( Goerss et al. 1998 ). AMV observations are provided where traceable cloud or water vapor features exist, at levels from the near surface to about 100 hPa. Routine, operational, AMVs are generated from successive 30-min images, using infrared (IR), shortwave IR, water vapor (WV), and visible (VIS) channels. Special RS modes allow for more-frequent satellite imagery, which has been

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Fuqing Zhang, Yonghui Weng, Jason A. Sippel, Zhiyong Meng, and Craig H. Bishop

), potential temperature, geopotential, and mixing ratios for water vapor, cloud, rain, ice, snow, and graupel. In the control experiments, three model domains with two-way nesting are used ( Fig. 2 ). The two coarse domains (D1 and D2) both have 160 × 121 grid points and grid spacings of 40.5 and 13.5 km, respectively. The innermost domain, D3, has 253 × 253 grid points and a grid spacing of 4.5 km. All model domains have 35 vertical layers, and the model top is set at 10 hPa. The physical

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

-to-sonde variance of ±0.7°C and a profile mean XDD warm bias relative to RD-94 mean temperature profiles averaging +1.2°C, in close agreement with bias estimates relative to the surface buoy observations as well as Twin Otter aircraft profile observations discussed in section 3b . Also shown is the sonde miniradiometer SSTir profile typical of one of the XDDs. The observed values in the profile indicate the sum total of true SSTir plus intervening atmospheric water vapor and cloud attenuation. Linear

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Kun-Hsuan Chou, Chun-Chieh Wu, Po-Hsiung Lin, Sim D. Aberson, Martin Weissmann, Florian Harnisch, and Tetsuo Nakazawa

in the high-sensitivity (target) areas, while the P-3 and C-130 conducted reconnaissance flights in the inner core and rainband areas of TCs. Onboard observation equipment and expendables, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) dropwindsondes, wind and water vapor Light Detection and Ranging (LIDARs), Doppler radar, and airborne expendable bathythermographs were deployed. The experiment provided unprecedented, valuable data for studying the physics, dynamics, and thermodynamics of the track and

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Mu Mu, Feifan Zhou, and Hongli Wang

used, initial changes are only made on u , υ , T , and p s . It is pointed out that specific humidity, which neither appears explicitly in the cost function nor in the initial perturbations, would also vary with time since the water vapor equation is included in the model. This is also discussed in section 5 . 3. Experiment design a. The model and the optimization algorithm Our study utilizes a component of MM5 ( Dudhia 1993 ), which includes the nonlinear MM5, its tangent linear model (TLM

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