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D. M. Rodgers, M. J. Magnano, and J. H. Arns

Laboratory, Marshall 2 Johns, R. H., National Severe Storms Forecast Center, KansasSpace Flight Center, Alabama 35812. City, Missouri 64106.898 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 113ablqO. 11. 6.7 ~m midtropospheric water vapor channel satellite image for(a) 2300 GMT 19 May and (b) 0500 GMT 20 May 1983.has been achieved in formulating

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and John L. Guiney

TAFB and 1.5 from the SAB. Slow development followed and it is estimated that the system became a tropical depression near 0000 UTC on 19 September, about 175 n mi to the southwest of the Cape Verde Islands. The TC was influenced by mid- to upper-level cyclonic flow centered to its northwest, over the central Atlantic. At first, that pattern consisted of a trough elongated southward from 30°N. During Ivan's development, however, water vapor imagery showed the trough become a closed circulation that

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

-organized curved band of deep convection accompanied the low-level circulation center. DMSP passes outside of the range of the Guam ground station are received several hours late at the JTWC via link from navy sources in Monterey, California. Though received late, the microwave imagery was nevertheless used to help support the real-time upgrade of Greg to a tropical storm at 0000 UTC 25 December. Microwave imagery, scatterometer-derived marine surface winds, and water-vapor derived upper-level winds have seen

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Richard D. Knabb, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

. Fernanda changed little in intensity during the next day and a half, and thereafter the northern half of the circulation moved over cooler waters, resulting in gradual weakening. Fernanda began to move toward the west-southwest around a very strong subtropical ridge, toward warmer waters, and the thunderstorm activity temporarily increased. However, the cyclone was embedded within a dry and stable environment, as discerned from water vapor satellite imagery, and the deep convection did not persist. The

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Richard J. Pasch, Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, and Stacy R. Stewart

to become better organized. By 1 September, deep convection became persistent, and surface and reconnaissance aircraft data indicate that the system became a tropical depression around 1800 UTC that day, centered about 120 n mi east of Daytona Beach, Florida. Although the cyclone was in an environment of moderate west-northwesterly shear, it strengthened into Tropical Storm Edouard by 0600 UTC 2 September. Later that day and early the next, the environment appeared to become more hostile. Water

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, James L. Franklin, John L. Guiney, and Richard J. Pasch

–99 average of 62% of the named tropical cyclones that originated from tropical waves. So, there are normally more systems originating from upper-tropospheric cold lows or along frontal zones than was observed during 1999. 2. Description of tropical storms and hurricanes a. Tropical Storm Arlene, 11–18 June Arlene remained at sea. The storm passed about 100 n mi east of Bermuda, but tropical storm force winds remained offshore. On 8 June, water vapor imagery first showed the circulation of an upper low

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

characterized by its numerous intensity fluctuations. For several consecutive days, Marco became disorganized during the afternoon when the low-level center was practically exposed. The central pressure rose each afternoon as well. This was followed by a significant redevelopment of the convection and a drop in pressure during the nights and early mornings. These fluctuations could be attributed to the interaction of Marco with a series of fast-moving short-wave troughs and ridges observed on water vapor

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