Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for :

  • Water vapor x
  • Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems (OWLeS) x
  • Monthly Weather Review x
  • All content x
Clear All
Dan Welsh, Bart Geerts, Xiaoqin Jing, Philip T. Bergmaier, Justin R. Minder, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor ( Ware et al. 2003 ). Through the measurement of passive microwave radiances at various frequencies, a profile of cloud LWC is also derived ( Ware et al. 2003 ). The MPR vertical resolution is inherently limited, and is best (~100 m) near the surface. A Particle Size Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer is an optical sensor with laser diode; it measures particle concentration as a function of size and as a function of fall velocity. The instrument measures

Full access
Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

saturation vapor pressure difference between a water surface and an ice surface), droplets should be consumed rapidly by nearby ice crystals, through the Bergeron process. Why these ice clouds reached SL, but not CL (cf. Fig. 3a ), is not clear. Fig . 8. As in Fig. 6 , but for WCL backscatter power. A 100-m-thick lidar blind zone surrounds the aircraft flight level. Given the orientation of the flight leg pattern with respect to the lakes (cf. Fig. 1b ), it is evident from these vertical profiles that

Full access
Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

1. Introduction Cold-air outbreaks over the North American Great Lakes in late fall and early winter often lead to lake-effect (LE) snowfall, a phenomenon that occurs when relatively cool air moves across and is modified by a much warmer large body of water. Warming and moistening of the near-surface air produces a well-mixed boundary layer driven by moist convection and deepening with fetch from the upwind shore. Such convection tends to organize linearly into bands, parallel to the low

Full access
Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

1. Introduction Lake-effect snowstorms generated over the Great Lakes of North America and other bodies of water can produce intense, extremely localized snowfall (e.g., Andersson and Nilsson 1990 ; Steenburgh et al. 2000 ; Eito et al. 2005 ; Laird et al. 2009 ; Kindap 2010 ). Forecasters still struggle, however, to accurately predict the timing and location of the heaviest snowfall during lake-effect events, which disrupt local and regional transportation, education, utilities, and

Full access
Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

elevated terrain (e.g., Kirshbaum and Grant 2012 ); 2) a vapor-diffusional seeder–feeder effect whereby increased cloud liquid water generated by gradual, forced ascent acts as a feeder to the existing hydrometeors with ice growing via diffusional growth at the expense of the additional supercooled liquid water (e.g., Choularton and Perry 1986 ); 3) a reduction in low-level sublimation due to the decreased distance between ground and cloud base and moistening by ascent (e.g., Murakami et al. 1994

Full access
Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3283:NSOTIB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3283:NSOTIB>2.0.CO;2 DeCosmo , J. , K. B. Katsaros , S. D. Smith , R. J. Anderson , W. A. Oost , K. Bumke , and H. Chadwick , 1996 : Air–sea exchange of water vapor and sensible heat: The Humidity Exchange over the Sea (HEXOS) results . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 12 001 – 12 016 , . 10.1029/95JC03796 Durran , D. R. , 1990 : Mountain waves and downslope winds. Atmospheric Processes over Complex

Full access