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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Francesca Malfatti, Camille M. Sultana, Christopher Lee, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Kathryn A. Moore, Gavin C. Cornwell, Douglas B. Collins, Kimberly A. Prather, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Farooq Azam, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, and Paul J. DeMott

remains to be done to understand the abundance and characteristics of INPs associated with various aerosol types. Observational studies of ambient INPs have been made in both coastal and oceanic regions (e.g., Bigg 1973 ; Schnell and Vali 1976 ; Rosinski et al.1987 ; Bigg 1996 ; Prenni et al. 2009 ; DeMott et al. 2015 ). The first survey of oceanic INPs reported atmospheric concentrations of INPs active at −15°C in the immersion freezing nucleation mode [where an INP is immersed in a droplet of

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Nicholas R. Nalli, William L. Smith, and Quanhua Liu

-spectral-resolution radiances on the order of thousands of channels over the IR spectrum (i.e., “hyperspectral” radiances) (e.g., Smith et al. 2009 ) and include the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Cross-Track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on board the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership ( SNPP ) satellite ( Goldberg et al. 2013 ), the MetOp Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) ( Cayla 1993 ; Hilton et al. 2012 ) and the Aqua Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) ( Chahine et al. 2006 ). Because

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Wojciech W. Grabowski

1. Introduction The impact of atmospheric aerosols on clouds and precipitation continues to be a subject of considerable debate in modeling and observations; see Tao et al. (2012) and Fan et al. (2016) for recent reviews. Arguably, the most controversial subject concerns the impact of aerosols on the dynamics of deep convection, typically referred to as convection invigoration in polluted environments (e.g., Andreae et al. 2004 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2008 ). The invigoration is argued to come

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

1. Introduction Ambiguity in the concentrations, sources, composition, and cloud activation properties of naturally occurring aerosol represent a large source of the uncertainty in global model simulations of cloud radiative forcing ( Carslaw et al. 2013 ). This study addresses one critical aspect of aerosol–cloud interactions: characterization of marine ice nucleating particles (INPs). Atmospheric INPs are rare particles (e.g., approximately 1 in 10 5 aerosol particles in the free troposphere

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

mainly controlled by atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics. For warm clouds, the “Twomey” effect (i.e., reducing droplet size and increasing reflectance of clouds due to increased droplet number for a constant liquid water path) proposed about four decades ago ( Twomey 1977 ) is relatively well understood. Many different aerosol indirect effects have since been suggested, such as increased cloud lifetime and cloudiness ( Albrecht 1989 ) and suppressed rain ( Rosenfeld 1999 ) that are both

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

increased aerosol loading is associated with taller cloud towers and anvils ( Koren et al. 2010 ). Wang et al. (2014) highlighted that the radiative effect of light-absorbing aerosols causes warming in the lower troposphere, which strengthens lower-level convection and enhances precipitation in the rainband region. Conversely, light-absorbing aerosols in higher atmospheric layers increase stability, thereby diminishing convection, moistening the surface layer, and reducing evaporation and hence

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