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Qing Yue, K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, B. H. Kahn, P. Yang, and G. G. Mace

size and habit factors, have been inferred by a χ 2 -minimization program involving differences between the modeled and measured AIRS BT spectra. Moreover, we compare these inferred values to the independently derived cirrus optical depth and ice crystal size from collocated and coincident ground-based Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR) retrievals. We have also carried out numerical experiments to study the sensitivity

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

atmospheric absorption and water paths to be estimated ( Kummerow et al. 1996 ). In contrast, millimeter-wave spectrometers rely more on scattering signatures deduced as a function of altitude and wavelength for wavelengths that span the transition between Rayleigh and geometric scattering for typical hydrometeors. Thus, millimeter-wave spectra reveal information about hydrometeor size and altitude distributions, both of which are correlated with precipitation intensity. Millimeter-wave observations in

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Fuzhong Weng

millimeter-wave emissivity model. Proc. SPIE , 3503 , 288 – 300 . English , S. J. , and U. Une , 2006 : Assimilation of AMSU cloudy radiances. Preprints, 15th Int. TOVS Study Conf., Maratea, Italy, Int. TOVS Working Group, 447–454 . Evans , K. F. , and G. L. Stephens , 1991 : A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer , 46 , 413 – 423 . Eyre , J. R. , 1989 : Inversion of cloudy satellite sounding radiances by non-linear optimal

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Ronald M. Errico, George Ohring, Fuzhong Weng, Peter Bauer, Brad Ferrier, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Joe Turk

precipitation. The issue is how to use this information to improve the initialization of clouds and precipitation in models. Since clouds and precipitation often occur in sensitive regions for forecast impacts, such improvements are likely necessary for continuing to acquire significant gains in weather forecasting. To accelerate progress in the field, the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA), a joint activity of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National

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Fuzhong Weng, Tong Zhu, and Banghua Yan

a physical initialization method, and found that SSM/I rain-rate products developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produced the best prediction results. Zou and Xiao (2000) assimilated the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8/9 upper-tropospheric water vapor–tracking wind vectors into the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) through the four-dimensional variational

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Graeme L. Stephens and Christian D. Kummerow

that govern such distributions point to the elementary importance of the synoptic-scale controls of the atmospheric circulations that shape our weather systems ( Rossow and Cairns 1995 ). The vast range of scales that influence cloud and precipitation properties and the effects of these properties on weather and climate dictate a sampling strategy that inevitably requires the use of data collected from sensors flown on earth-orbiting satellites. A number of methods for determining various cloud and

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Philippe Lopez

parameterizations of moist processes still rely on crude simplifying assumptions either for the sake of computational efficiency or because of uncertainties about individual processes, in particular microphysics and cloud-scale transport. In the past 10 yr, some progress has also been achieved in the assimilation of observations affected by clouds and precipitation in NWPMs with the aim of producing more realistic initial atmospheric states (or analyses ). Such measurements are already widely available with a

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Christopher W. O’Dell, Peter Bauer, and Ralf Bennartz

. Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves , 12 , 659 – 675 . Liou , K-N. , 2002 : An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation . Academic Press, 583 pp . Mace , G. G. , and S. Benson-Troth , 2002 : Cloud-layer overlap characteristics derived from long-term cloud radar data. J. Climate , 15 , 2505 – 2515 . Morcrette , J. J. , and C. Jakob , 2000 : The response of the ECMWF model to changes in the cloud overlap assumption. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 1707 – 1732 . O’Dell , C. W. , A. K

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