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Matthew R. Mazloff

, however, have employed simplified dynamics or coarse resolution such that they can computationally afford to run a reasonable ensemble of simulations to equilibrium ( Gent et al. 2001 ). Hallberg and Gnanadesikan (2006) did run experiments with higher-resolution models and found the response of the ACC to changes in the mean wind stress is quite different in models that explicitly resolve eddies. Other work has investigated changes in the ACC state to atmospheric indices ( Meredith and Hogg 2006

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction The objective of this study is to examine the performance of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) in representing the high-latitude atmospheric energy budget. MERRA was recently released by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). This effort, as well as a companion paper examining the atmospheric moisture budget ( Cullather and Bosilovich 2011 ), represent an initial examination of

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

.g., Liu et al. 1979 ): where ρ is the air density; c p is the specific heat capacity of air at constant pressure; c h is turbulent exchange coefficient for SHF, which is a function of wind speed, height, and atmospheric stability; W is wind speed; and T s and T a are the SST and surface air temperature (SAT), respectively. It can be seen that both the wind speed and the sea–air temperature difference Δ T contributes to SHF. The effect of the temperature difference on SHF is usually

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

anomalous heat flux to the atmosphere, and it influences the large-scale atmospheric circulation through the propagation of stationary Rossby waves ( Honda et al. 1999 ). Although the Sea of Okhotsk is a marginal sea, the redistribution of heat and salt associated with the sea ice processes has a strong influence on the atmosphere and ocean on a hemispheric scale. 3. Methods and data A daily heat and salt flux dataset for 9 yr between 2002 and 2010 was created on the AMSR-E polar stereographic grid at a

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