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Robert E. Davis, Thomas H. Painter, Rick Forster, Don Cline, Richard Armstrong, Terry Haran, Kyle McDonald, and Kelly Elder

collected measurements from a variety of spaceborne multispectral instruments. Table 1 summarizes the wave bands, whereas Table 2 summarizes the periods of collection, or intensive observation periods (IOPs). IOP-1 was conducted from 17 to 24 February 2002, IOP-2 from 24 to 30 March 2002, IOP-3 from 17 to 25 February 2003, and IOP-4 from 25 March to 1 April 2003. All IOPs measure the earth’s radiance in the reflected solar spectrum (visible through shortwave infrared) and emitted terrestrial

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Rafał Wójcik, Konstantinos Andreadis, Marco Tedesco, Eric Wood, Tara Troy, and Dennis Lettenmeier

1. Introduction Improved assimilation of atmospheric sounding data over land from sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) requires better estimates of the land surface microwave emissivity. Although this problem pertains to all of the land areas of the globe, the particulars are different for snow-covered and snow-free areas owing to substantially different dielectric properties of snow and

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

, incident and reflected solar radiation, upwelling and downwelling longwave radiation, net all-wave radiation, soil moisture, soil temperature, snow depth, and snow surface temperature. Observations made at 30-s intervals were averaged (where appropriate) and recorded at a 10-min resolution. Snow depth, wind direction, and soil temperature were recorded as a single sample measurement at the start of each 10-min period. The snow surface temperature was measured using sensors located at approximately 1 m

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