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Meng-Pai Hung, Jia-Lin Lin, Wanqiu Wang, Daehyun Kim, Toshiaki Shinoda, and Scott J. Weaver

and extratropics (e.g., Schubert et al. 2002 ; Waliser et al. 2003a ). Most of the dominant convective tropical intraseasonal modes are solutions of the shallow water model ( Matsuno 1966 ), with a modified equivalent depth ( WK ). These so-called convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCEWs) include Kelvin, equatorial Rossby (ER), mixed Rossby–gravity (MRG), eastward inertio-gravity (EIG), and westward inertio-gravity (WIG) waves ( Takayabu 1994 ; WK ; Kiladis et al. 2009 ). In addition to

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Baird Langenbrunner and J. David Neelin

of the atmospheric components of CGCMs in setting the dynamics of ENSO and its teleconnections ( Guilyardi et al. 2004 , 2009a ; Lloyd et al. 2009 ; Sun et al. 2009 ; Weare 2013 ), as well as how ENSO will behave under climate change ( Collins et al. 2010 ). The precipitation response to interannual climate variations like ENSO also continues to be a challenge for CGCMs ( Dai 2006 ). In the tropics, equatorial wave dynamics spread tropospheric temperature anomalies, which induce feedbacks

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Jeanne M. Thibeault and Anji Seth

; Bonsal et al. 2011 ; Seager et al. 2012 ). This research identifies atmospheric processes important to northeast-region warm-season precipitation on interannual time scales and performs an initial case study examining the ability of the coupled climate models from phase 5 of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) ( Taylor et al. 2012 ) to simulate these processes using a subset of five models: CanESM2, CCSM4, CNRM-CM5, GFDL-ESM2M, and MIROC5 ( Table 1

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Kerrie L. Geil, Yolande L. Serra, and Xubin Zeng

). Global and limited-area model simulations have been conducted in the past to evaluate the representation of the NAMS and the results show a wide range of model ability. Arritt et al. (2000) demonstrated that the Met Office (UKMO) HadCM2 global model could simulate generally realistic NAMS circulation and precipitation, whereas Yang et al. (2001) showed that the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCM3 global model was unable to simulate these NAMS features. Liang et al. (2008) found

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Xianan Jiang, Eric D. Maloney, Jui-Lin F. Li, and Duane E. Waliser

, J. Hafner , and J. Shaman , 2013 : Remote forcing versus local feedback of east Pacific intraseasonal variability . J. Climate , in press . Serra , Y. L. , G. N. Kiladis , and K. I. Hodges , 2010 : Tracking and mean structure of easterly waves over the Intra-Americas Sea . J. Climate , 23 , 4823 – 4840 , doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3223.1 . Slingo , J. M. , and Coauthors , 1996 : Intraseasonal oscillations in 15 atmospheric general circulation models: Results from an AMIP

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Suzana J. Camargo

and Vecchi 2012 , 2013 ). The most recent version of a Japanese model [Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM)] with 20-km resolution is able to simulate intense Category 4 and 5 TCs ( Murakami et al. 2012b ). As low-resolution climate models are better able to simulate the large-scale environmental, rather than individual, storms, one attractive approach is to analyze large-scale variables known to be associated with TC activity, instead of model TCs

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Justin Sheffield, Suzana J. Camargo, Rong Fu, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Seon Tae Kim, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Richard Seager, Yolande L. Serra, De-Zheng Sun, Chunzai Wang, Shang-Ping Xie, Jin-Yi Yu, Tao Zhang, and Ming Zhao

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and other global, regional, and national assessments. The goal of this study is to provide a broad evaluation of CMIP5 models in their depiction of North American climate variability. It draws from individual work by investigators within the CMIP5 Task Force of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Modeling Analysis and Prediction Program (MAPP) and is part of a Journal of Climate special collection on

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Eric D. Maloney, Suzana J. Camargo, Edmund Chang, Brian Colle, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Xianan Jiang, Nathaniel Johnson, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, James Kinter, Benjamin Kirtman, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Zaitao Pan, Richard Seager, Yolande Serra, Anji Seth, Justin Sheffield, Julienne Stroeve, Jeanne Thibeault, Shang-Ping Xie, Chunzai Wang, Bruce Wyman, and Ming Zhao

and Robbins 2011 ; Wehner et al. 2011 ). A general increase in heat waves, decrease in cold extremes, decrease in frost days, and increase in length of the growing season have been projected across large portions of NA ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004 ; Diffenbaugh et al. 2005 ; Biasutti et al. 2012 ; Christiansen et al. 2011 ; Diffenbaugh and Scherer 2011 ; Duffy and Tebaldi 2012 ; Lau and Nath 2012 ), projected trends that are generally consistent with observed trends in such quantities over the

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Justin Sheffield, Andrew P. Barrett, Brian Colle, D. Nelun Fernando, Rong Fu, Kerrie L. Geil, Qi Hu, Jim Kinter, Sanjiv Kumar, Baird Langenbrunner, Kelly Lombardo, Lindsey N. Long, Eric Maloney, Annarita Mariotti, Joyce E. Meyerson, Kingtse C. Mo, J. David Neelin, Sumant Nigam, Zaitao Pan, Tong Ren, Alfredo Ruiz-Barradas, Yolande L. Serra, Anji Seth, Jeanne M. Thibeault, Julienne C. Stroeve, Ze Yang, and Lei Yin

at daily to seasonal time scales, as well as selected climate features that have regional importance. Part II covers aspects of climate variability, such as intraseasonal variability in the tropical Pacific, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, which play major roles in driving North American climate variability. This study draws from individual work by investigators within the CMIP5 Task Force of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

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David E. Rupp, Philip W. Mote, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Peter A. Stott, and David A. Robinson

European heat wave (e.g., Stott et al. 2004 ). Other important aspects of global climate, for example, the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and tropical cyclones, have not exhibited a detectable change ( Hegerl et al. 2007 ). Northern Hemisphere (NH) snow cover extent (SCE) is among the most important indicators of global climate variability and change. An increase in global temperature should cause a decline in total snow cover extent given the 0°C-threshold response of snow formation and melt. However

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