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Xichen Li, David M. Holland, Edwin P. Gerber, and Changhyun Yoo

play a key role in channeling wave activity from the Atlantic and Pacific to West Antarctica. The outline of this paper is as follows: The tropical SST trend is estimated in section 2 , which is then used to force the atmospheric models. Results from the CAM4 comprehensive atmospheric model simulations are presented in section 3 , followed by results from the GFDL dry-dynamical core simulations in section 4 , and those from the theoretical model in section 5 . Conclusions are drawn in section

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Xiaojun Yuan, Michael R. Kaplan, and Mark A. Cane

al. 2002 ). Similarly, the atmospheric responses can be traced in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) extratropics ( Trenberth et al. 1998 ; Pozo-Vázquez et al. 2005 ; Cassou and Terray 2001 ; Jevrejeva et al. 2003 ). The mechanisms fostering the connection between ENSO and the high latitudes through the troposphere include 1) the Rossby waves generated by tropical convection ( Karoly 1989 ; Mo and Higgins 1998 ; Kiladis and Mo 1998 ; Garreaud and Battisti 1999 ); 2) jet stream changes in response

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Xiaofang Feng, Qinghua Ding, Liguang Wu, Charles Jones, Ian Baxter, Robert Tardif, Samantha Stevenson, Julien Emile-Geay, Jonathan Mitchell, Leila M. V. Carvalho, Huijun Wang, and Eric J. Steig

the wave train from the Pacific to the two poles appears to be the tropical atmospheric response to the cooling SST trend in the eastern Pacific ( Fig. 1g ). Several early studies ( Ding et al. 2014 ; Trenberth et al. 2014 ) have shown that different climate models forced by the observed SST cooling over the tropical eastern Pacific can generate a similar two-pronged large-scale Rossby wave train extending from the tropical Pacific to the Arctic and West Antarctic separately ( Fig. 2c ). Fig . 1

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Graham R. Simpkins, Yannick Peings, and Gudrun Magnusdottir

near zero-lag during MAM and JJA (see also Ding et al. 2012 ). Given the well-established connections between atmospheric disturbances in the tropical Pacific and the excitation of atmospheric Rossby waves ( Karoly 1989 ), and that ~40% of eqSOI variability can seemingly be linked to ATL3 in JJA (i.e., given r = 0.64, and assuming an association from Atlantic to Pacific), observed Atlantic teleconnections may inherently possess Pacific signals. Motivated by this peak wintertime interaction

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Kyle R. Clem and James A. Renwick

austral spring [September–November (SON)]. Statistically significant warming is also found in observations across the western Antarctic Peninsula during SON ( Turner et al. 2005 ), and after 1979 SON is found to be the only season with widespread significant warming across both West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula ( Schneider et al. 2012 ; Bromwich et al. 2013 ; Nicolas and Bromwich 2014 ; Clem and Fogt 2015 ). Consistent with the SON warming are significant changes in regional atmospheric

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David P. Schneider, Clara Deser, and Tingting Fan

oceanic gyres ( England et al. 2014 ). The negative rainfall trends over the central tropical Pacific ( Fig. 2b ) imply strongly negative diabatic heating anomalies, giving rise to the expectation of an atmospheric Rossby wave response that may impact the SH atmospheric circulation ( Trenberth et al. 2014 ). With the zonal-mean trend removed, the central and eastern Pacific cooling stands out as anomalous ( Fig. 2f ), which sets the stage for the circulation response in the model simulations described

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

transport. The resulting dynamically induced warming of the tropical oceans intensifies the intertropical convergence zones (ITCZs) on their equatorward flanks, which in turn alters the midlatitude atmospheric circulation via Rossby wave dynamics. In contrast, the thermodynamic air–sea coupled response to Arctic sea ice loss produces a very different tropical response, shifting the Hadley circulation toward the Northern Hemisphere (NH). A similar thermodynamic coupled response to an extratropical

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N. Fauchereau, B. Pohl, and A. Lorrey

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO: Madden and Julian 1971 ; Zhang 2005 ) is the dominant mode of atmospheric variability at the intraseasonal time scale in the tropics, with a periodicity typically comprising between 30 and 60 days. Its core signal is associated with a west-to-east propagation of large-scale convective clusters (~10 000 km across). These convective events are initiated in the western Indian Ocean basin, they migrate across the Maritime Continent, and then

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Kyle R. Clem, James A. Renwick, and James McGregor

Antarctica during winter and spring ( Steig et al. 2009 ; Ding et al. 2011 ; Schneider et al. 2012 ; Bromwich et al. 2013 ; Nicolas and Bromwich 2014 ). Apart from the warming on the northeast peninsula, the recent Antarctic Peninsula/West Antarctica climate trends lie within their respective ranges of internal variability and are likely tied to natural decadal variability in atmospheric circulation rather than anthropogenic forcing ( Jones et al. 2016a ; Turner et al. 2016 ). The western peninsula

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Michael Goss, Steven B. Feldstein, and Sukyoung Lee

which and have first been filtered by individual zonal wavenumber, ranging from 1 to 3. The resulting values are again normalized by their mean and standard deviation to retrieve SWI time series for each zonal wavenumber. These time series are designated as SWI 1 through SWI 3 . (We focus on wavenumbers 1 through 3 because it is these wavenumbers that account for the largest contribution to the climatological stationary wave.) Lagged composites of several atmospheric variables and indices are

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