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Anthony M. DeAngelis, Hailan Wang, Randal D. Koster, Siegfried D. Schubert, Yehui Chang, and Jelena Marshak

. 2a–d ). The atmospheric ridge was part of a quasi-stationary Rossby wave train ( Hoskins and Ambrizzi 1993 ; Ambrizzi et al. 1995 ), that is, a series of atmospheric troughs and ridges that remained nearly stationary in geographic location but with energy slowly propagating from west to east along the zonal jet stream. The wave train of 2012 developed between Eurasia and the western North Pacific in early to mid-June and propagated eastward to North America over subsequent weeks ( Figs. 2g

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Yizhou Zhuang, Amir Erfanian, and Rong Fu

the summer precipitation over the Great Plains, the physical pathways behind this relationship are not yet fully understood. The relative importance of SSTA versus internal atmospheric variability on summer precipitation over the Great Plains has remained an open question. Addressing this question is critical to skillful prediction of precipitation variability and droughts over the region. A dynamical teleconnection, through a Pacific–North American stationary wave train, has been considered to be

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

1. Introduction According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Center for Environmental Information (NOAA/NCEI) the average cost of drought in the United States is $9.6 billion per year ( NOAA/NCEI 2020a ) making it the second most costly weather and climate phenomenon in the past three decades ( NOAA/NCEI 2020b ). The costs of drought are primarily in the agriculture sector, but drought also impacts power generation, recreation, and numerous other parts of the

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Yaling Liu, Dongdong Chen, Soukayna Mouatadid, Xiaoliang Lu, Min Chen, Yu Cheng, Zhenghui Xie, Binghao Jia, Huan Wu, and Pierre Gentine

: Tensorflow: A system for large-scale machine learning . 12th USENIX Symp. on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’16) , Savannah, GA, USENIX Association , 265 – 283 . Anderegg , W. R. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models . Science , 349 , 528 – 532 , . 10.1126/science.aab1833 Andrews , D. G. , 2010 : An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics . Cambridge

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