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Yue Ying and Fuqing Zhang

; Dunkerton and Crum 1995 ). The MRG waves propagate westward at a speed of 15–20 m s −1 and have the potential to develop into tropical cyclones ( Takayabu and Nitta 1993 ; Dickinson and Molinari 2002 ). The westward-propagating IG (WIG) waves have a wide range of spatiotemporal scales, ranging from smaller-scale diurnal to semidiurnal variations to larger-scale 2-day waves ( Haertel and Kiladis 2004 ). How predictable are the tropical weather systems and CCEWs? The concept of atmospheric

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James N. Moum, Simon P. de Szoeke, William D. Smyth, James B. Edson, H. Langley DeWitt, Aurélie J. Moulin, Elizabeth J. Thompson, Christopher J. Zappa, Steven A. Rutledge, Richard H. Johnson, and Christopher W. Fairall

. (a) Hovmöller plot of TRMM precipitation at the equator and across the Indian Ocean for the period of MJO2 (blue image color); corresponding contours of OLR = 200 W m −2 (black). Green lines indicate propagating disturbances in TRMM at roughly the atmospheric Kelvin wave speed, 8.6 m s −1 . Note that the OLR signal travels more slowly than the rain signal. (b) Time series of precipitation from TRMM (blue shading; averaged ±0.5° both zonally and meridionally about the ship position at 0°, 80.5°E

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Xiouhua Fu, Wanqiu Wang, June-Yi Lee, Bin Wang, Kazuyoshi Kikuchi, Jingwei Xu, Juan Li, and Scott Weaver

Lukas 1992 ), almost all theoretical and modeling studies treated the MJO as an atmospheric internal phenomenon; for example, the wave-CISK (conditional instability of the second kind) (e.g., Lau and Peng 1987 ; Chang and Lim 1988 ; Lau et al. 1988 ) and frictional convergence-CISK theories ( Wang 1988a ). The wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) hypothesis raised by Emanuel (1987) and Neelin et al. (1987) aimed to advocate the essential role of oceanic surface evaporation on

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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

tropical Pacific, 1973–1992: Horizontal structure and propagation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 52 , 1585 – 1601 . Frank , W. M. , and P. Roundy , 2006 : The role of tropical waves in tropical cyclogenesis . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 2397 – 2417 . Gottschalck , J. , P. E. Roundy , C. J. Schreck III , A. Vintzileos , and C. Zhang , 2013 : Large-scale atmospheric and oceanic conditions during the 2011–12 DYNAMO field campaign . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 141, 4173–4196 . Hoell , A. , M

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

. Locations of CINDY2011/DYNAMO IOP sounding and mooring sites overlaid on the COAMPS atmospheric, ocean, and wave domains. The green box indicates the coverage area of the IOP array connecting the sounding sites Malé, Colombo, Gan, R/V Revelle , Diego Garcia, and R/V Mirai . The stars are the mooring sites D1 (yellow), D2 (red), and D3 (cyan). The inner-two atmospheric grids are shown as magenta rectangles, and the ocean and wave model grid is shown in white. The 3-km atmospheric nest 3 covers an area

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

long compared to the time scale of atmospheric convection, and it propagates eastward at 5 m s −1 . The long time scale of the MJO and its slow propagation compared to the observed time scales of atmospheric convection and propagation speeds of equatorial waves remains unexplained by theoretical models. Most commonly cited models explain low-level convergence by unbalanced diabatic heating by convection [wave - conditional instability of the second kind (CISK); (e.g., Gill 1980 ; Lau and Peng

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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

). Ray and Li (2013) evaluated the relative importance of circumnavigating signals and extratropical forcing by performing sensitivity experiments using a general circulation model and concluded that extratropical forcing was more important than were circumnavigating signals in association with mean moisture convergence. They demonstrated that the upper-tropospheric wave energy that originated in the extratropics intruded into the equatorial region to initiate the MJO. However, no detailed

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Ji-Hyun Oh, Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, Mitchell W. Moncrieff, Richard H. Johnson, and Paul Ciesielski

, RG4003 , doi: 10.1029/2004RG000150 . Houze , R. A. , Jr. , S. S. Chen , D. E. Kingsmill , Y. Serra , and S. E. Yuter , 2000 : Convection over the Pacific warm pool in relation to the atmospheric Kelvin-Rossby wave . J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 3058 – 3089 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<3058:COTPWP>2.0.CO;2 . Huffman , G. J. , R. F. Adler , B. Rudolf , U. Schneider , and P. R. Keehn , 1995 : Global precipitation estimates based on a technique for combining satellite

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Tim Li, Chongbo Zhao, Pang-chi Hsu, and Tomoe Nasuno

over the WIO and the possible role of high-frequency waves in MJO initiation. A summary is given in the last section. 2. Data and method The primary datasets used for this analysis include 1) daily satellite-observed outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; Liebmann and Smith 1996 ), 2) the Interim European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim; Dee et al. 2011 ), 3) the ECMWF final analysis (FNL), and 4

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Kai-Chih Tseng, Chung-Hsiung Sui, and Tim Li

tropical intraseasonal oscillation simulated by the UIUC 11-layer atmospheric GCM . J. Climate , 12 , 1423 – 145 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1999)012<1423:TDOCPO>2.0.CO;2 . Wheeler , M. , and G. N. Kiladis , 1999 : Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of cloud and temperature in the wavenumber-frequency domain . J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 374 – 399 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<0374:CCEWAO>2.0.CO;2 . Wheeler , M. , and H. H. Hendon , 2004 : An all-season real-time multivariate

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