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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

wave transport in the free atmosphere. Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, 103 pp . Kim, J. , 1997 : Precipitation and snow budget over the southwestern United States during the 1994–1995 winter season in a mesoscale model simulation. Water Resour. Res. , 33 , 2831 – 2839 . 10.1029/97WR02516 Kim, J. , 2001 : A nested modeling study of elevation-dependent climate change signals in California induced by increased atmospheric CO 2 . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2951 – 2954 . 10

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

by the TP can generate Rossby waves in the westerlies, which can propagate downstream and influence the circulation anomaly elsewhere. It is also located over the central and eastern parts of the Eurasian continent, facing the Indian Ocean to the south and the Pacific Ocean to its east. Therefore the Tibetan Plateau can exert profound thermal and dynamical influences on the circulation, energy, and water cycles of the climate system. Before the 1950s, most of the studies concerning the influence

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

initialize global and regional models. A few studies have incorporated the precipitation information via a one-dimensional variational data assimilation system, for example, Fillion and Errico (1997) and Marècal and Mahfouf (2000) . Hou et al. (2000) defined a 1 + 1D assimilation procedure that consists of a time integration of a simplified column version of the atmospheric general circulation model with full physics. Others have employed even more sophisticated and computationally expensive four

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Xia Zhang, Shu Fen Sun, and Yongkang Xue

content, and ice content also improves the climate model’s ability to simulate greenhouse gas exchange processes in cold regions ( Mikan et al. 2002 ). In recent years, efforts have been made to develop frozen soil parameterizations in land surface schemes for atmospheric models. The parameterization for frozen soil processes can generally be divided into two categories according to the methodology defining the freezing point in the soil. The schemes in the first category are based on a fixed freezing

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