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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

than has been achieved using higher-resolution atmospheric models developed more specifically for this purpose (e.g., Zhao et al. 2009 ; Bender et al. 2010 ). Fig . 20. Tropical cyclone frequency (per year) for (a) AM3, (b) CM3, and (c) U.S. National Hurricane Center and Navy observations. The AM3 tropical (15°S to 15°N) wave spectrum has been evaluated in the format of Wheeler and Kiladis (1999) . AM3 is essentially without Kelvin waves or a Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) in contrast to the

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

1. Introduction Climate model simulations participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report ( Solomon et al. 2007 ) were restricted in two important ways by the computer power then available. First, the models specified zonally symmetric stratospheric ozone. As a result, the model dynamics (in particular planetary waves) are unrelated to the ozone field

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