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Sybille Y. Schoger, Dmitri Moisseev, Annakaisa von Lerber, Susanne Crewell, and Kerstin Ebell

of 0.48°) allows the continuous wave transmission and the receiving antenna is protected from saturation ( Küchler et al. 2017 ). MiRAC-A has a very low transmitter power consumption of 1.5 W but a strong blower that ensures a precipitation-free antenna surface. The uncertainty of Z e is on the order of 0.5 dB Z , and the lowest detectable signal is in the range of −65 to −50 dB Z at the distance of 100–600 m depending on chirp settings and atmospheric state ( Mech et al. 2019 ). The available

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Randy J. Chase, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Greg M. McFarquhar

for the evaluation of atmospheric numerical model simulations and their parameterized ice-phase microphysics (e.g., Delanoë et al. 2011 ; Stein et al. 2015 ; Ori et al. 2020 ). Despite many advances in satellite remote sensing techniques and sensors in the past few decades, the uncertainty in the estimate of the atmosphere’s ice water path remains large, and there is poor agreement between observational retrievals and numerical models (e.g., Duncan and Eriksson 2018 ). The best way to retrieve

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

processes. For example, at synoptic time scales, variability of the rainfall is observed linking to tropical wave dynamics ( Mounier et al. 2007 ) and the extratropical intrusion of dry air ( Roca et al. 2005 ). The dominant mode of synoptic variability of precipitation is correlated with African easterly waves (AEWs) through the dynamic relationship to organized convection systems ( Kiladis et al. 2006 ; Skinner and Diffenbaugh 2013 ). Satellite observations and numerical model simulations are

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

. Twice, on 13 and 17 November, Lake Quinault rose at a rate of 0.15 m h −1 for 12–18 h and nearly flooded the DOW radar site on the shore of the lake ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). These two storms were “atmospheric rivers,” in which long plumes of moisture in the warm sector just ahead of the cold front are advected by the low-level jet ahead of the front. When this moisture plume intersects the mountains, great enhancement of the frontal precipitation occurs ( Neiman et al. 2008 ; Houze 2012 , 2014

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

–liquid phases). LH and its vertical distribution not only have a strong influence on a variety of tropical circulations, including tropical waves and tropical cyclone intensity, but also on midlatitude cyclones and weather systems. Moreover, the processes associated with LH result in significant nonlinear changes in atmospheric radiation through the creation, dissipation, and modulation of clouds and precipitation. Although more recent efforts have been made to estimate the LH associated with weakly

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E. F. Stocker, F. Alquaied, S. Bilanow, Y. Ji, and L. Jones

month. The errors occurred when the solar beta angle (sun elevation above the orbit plane) was around 45°. Besides these occasional error spikes, the pitch and roll were susceptible to seasonal horizon radiance errors in the tenth-of-a-degree range. Yaw in the preboost period typically showed jumps of 0.1°–0.2° twice each orbit as the yaw was updated using the sun sensor data. The version 7 corrections also took out a sine wave–like component of the errors in roll and yaw because orbit period

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Kenneth D. Leppert II and Daniel J. Cecil

concentration for passive microwave satellite measurements by using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) to simulate GMI BTs (from 10 through 183 GHz) over a hailstorm. Ground-based, polarimetric S-band radar data are used to define the three-dimensional structure of radar reflectivity Z h and to guide the assumptions of particle type. Complex particle shapes are not considered; only spheroids are modeled. The study seeks to answer three main questions. First, assuming fixed S-band Z h

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Xiang Ni, Chuntao Liu, and Edward Zipser

of MAXHT20 and MAXHT30 over tropical (20°S–20°N) (top) land and (bottom) ocean. With different wavelengths at Ku and Ka bands, the electromagnetic waves interact with particles differently. The combination of the two channels would help in the retrieval of microphysical parameters. Typically, based on the radar equation, there are three likely influences on DFR profiles: 1) the Mie scattering effect, 2) the path-integrated attenuation, and 3) multiple scattering. Based on the Mie scattering

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