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Steven E. Koch, Wayne Feltz, Frédéric Fabry, Mariusz Pagowski, Bart Geerts, Kristopher M. Bedka, David O. Miller, and James W. Wilson

observed precipitation patterns, given the sensitivity of the density current and bore occurrence to this factor. Other necessary ingredients for successful numerical simulation include the proper simulation of the waveguide, such as a frontal system acting as a horizontal delimiter, and the strength of the low-level jet, which acts as an important mechanism for trapping vertical wave energy propagation. Acknowledgments We express our appreciation to the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

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Robin L. Tanamachi, Wayne F. Feltz, and Ming Xue

the time of passage, the bore appeared to be in transition to a slightly less vigorous solitary wave, which may explain the discrepancy between the calculated vertical displacement and the observed. d. Surface data A National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Integrated Sounding System (ISS) automated weather station at the Homestead site recorded thermodynamic and wind measurements throughout the IHOP_2002 deployment. The measurements from the morning of 12 June 2002 exhibit some sharp

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John H. Marsham, Stanley B. Trier, Tammy M. Weckwerth, and James W. Wilson

. Nappo , C. J. , 2002 : An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves . International Geophysics Series, Vol. 85, Academic Press, 276 pp . Parker , M. D. , 2008 : Response of simulated squall lines to low-level cooling. J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 1323 – 1341 . Rotunno , R. , J. B

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Robert J. Conzemius and Evgeni Fedorovich

for comparing the observed evolution of the sheared atmospheric CBL with large-eddy simulation (LES; Moeng and Sullivan 1994 ; Pino et al. 2003 ; Conzemius and Fedorovich 2006a ). The primary goals of the study are twofold. First, we intend to evaluate LES predictions of the sheared CBL growth against lidar observations of CBL depth evolution and compare LES output with radiometer, radar, and radiosonde data to more fully understand the evolution of the mean wind and temperature in the CBL

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Lindsay J. Bennett, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Alan M. Blyth, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, and Yvette P. Richardson

Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC) Scanning Raman lidar (SRL) and Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE), the University of Massachusetts Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Integrated Sounding System (ISS). a. Lidar The SRL transmits light at a wavelength of λ = 354.7 nm and uses the ratio between the Raman-shifted return signals from water vapor (408 nm) and nitrogen (387 nm) to calculate the

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S. B. Trier, F. Chen, K. W. Manning, M. A. LeMone, and C. A. Davis

on seasonal precipitation amounts (e.g., Koster et al. 2004a , b ; Ruiz-Barradas and Nigam 2005 ). In this paper, we use a three-dimensional atmospheric model coupled with different land surface models (LSMs) to examine relationships between the land surface, the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and precipitation. The PBL evolution is a potentially important linkage between soil moisture and precipitation because soil wetness has been observed to strongly impact the daytime moist static energy

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Mukul Tewari, Jimy Dudhia, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Richard L. Coulter, and Robert L. Grossman

. Young , G. S. , D. A. R. Kristovich , M. R. Hjelmfelt , and R. C. Foster , 2002 : Rolls, streets, waves, and more: A review of quasi-two-dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 997 – 1001 . Fig . 1. Eastern track, instrumentation, and land use. (top

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Monica Górska, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Margaret A. LeMone, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

1. Introduction Previous studies of the diurnal variability of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) focus mainly on surface processes such as photosynthesis and respiration ( Verma et al. 1989 ; Kim and Verma 1990 ; Lloyd and Taylor 1994 ), rather than on the CO 2 exchange between the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the free atmosphere during daytime. This last process is driven by energy generated within the boundary layer, primarily by buoyancy, and shear at the ABL top. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano et

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Edward I. Tollerud, Fernando Caracena, Steven E. Koch, Brian D. Jamison, R. Michael Hardesty, Brandi J. McCarty, Christoph Kiemle, Randall S. Collander, Diana L. Bartels, Steven Albers, Brent Shaw, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, and W. Alan Brewer

Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) wind profiler network address the time resolution issue ( Mitchell et al. 1995 ; Anderson and Arritt 2001 ). However, these studies are affected by the fact that wind profilers often miss the very shallow LLJs that peak below the lowest observation gate, which can be 500 m or more above the ground ( Whiteman et al. 1997 ; Daniel et al. 1999 ). The use of dropsondes and lidar wind data in focused LLJ studies both inside and outside the domain of the central United States

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Roger M. Wakimoto and Hanne V. Murphey

aircraft. A 3-cm airborne Electra Doppler Radar (ELDORA) is operated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and is flown on board a Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) P-3. ELDORA is equipped with two antennas that scan fore and aft of the normal to the aircraft. Dual-Doppler wind fields can be synthesized with these data using a fore-aft scanning technique (FAST; Jorgensen et al. 1996 ). Convergence boundaries often appear as radar-detectable thin lines even in the absence of

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