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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

1. Introduction Although the sensitivity of satelliteborne passive millimeter-wave spectrometers to precipitation was quickly demonstrated by several researchers ( Staelin and Chen 2000 ; Kummerow et al. 2001 ; McCollum and Ferraro 2003 ; Weng et al. 2005 ), the resulting precipitation retrieval accuracy has evolved more slowly as we learn more about the physical and stochastic relationship between hydrometeors aloft and those that reach the ground. The physical relationship is fourfold

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Rémy Roca, Philippe Chambon, Isabelle Jobard, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Marielle Gosset, and Jean Claude Bergès

late June and characterized by a northward jump of the ITCZ ( Sultan and Janicot 2003 ) showing a strong modification of the rain regimes and synoptic-scale variability ( Gu and Adler 2004 ). The day-to-day variability of rainfall alternates between active and inactive phases at the intraseasonal scale with modes at 10–25 days and around 40–50 days, respectively ( Sultan et al. 2003 ). At shorter synoptic time scales, variability of the rainfall is also observed and linked to tropical wave dynamics

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

-based precipitation retrieval algorithm for attenuating radars. J. Appl. Meteor. , 41 , 272 – 285 . Liebe , H. , 1989 : MPM89–An atmospheric mm-wave propagation model. Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves , 10 ( 6 ) 631 – 650 . Liou , K. N. , 1992 : Radiation and Cloud Processes in the Atmosphere . Oxford University Press, 487 pp . Loveland , T. R. , B. C. Reed , J. F. Brown , D. O. Ohlen , Z. Zhu , L. Yang , and J. W. Merchant , 2000 : Development of a global land cover

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

will also be compliant with the need for long-term planning of atmospheric satellite missions aiming at climate change monitoring and trend detection ( Wertz and Larson 1999 ). A small–space mission concept would tend to favor millimeter-wave sensors because of the reduced size of the overall system compared to a microwave sensor with lower-frequency channels. On the other hand, MMW sounding can exploit window frequencies and various gaseous absorption bands at 50/60, 118, and 183 GHz (e

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

of one National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-provided satellite, U.S. satellite assets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, and international satellites with passive microwave instruments. Two of the major objectives of the GPM mission are to measure cold-season precipitation in mid- and high latitudes over land through the use of GMI high-frequency radiometry and to further the understanding of precipitation

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

convergent zones of the RAS over the Ross Island region, and consequently are influenced by increased wind speeds ( Fig. 11 ). Additional effects, such as mesocyclones as described by Carrasco et al. (2003) or a topographically enhanced “wave of energy” as described by Adams (2005) , both of which track past the Mary and Ferrell sites, are also presumed to affect blowing and drifting snow at these sites, although the extent to which is unknown. The Drygalski site was also dominated by blowing snow

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