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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) refer to narrow channels of enhanced water vapor transport concentrated in the lower atmosphere ( Zhu and Newell 1994 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ). Occupying less than 10% of the earth’s circumference, ARs account for over 90% of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes ( Zhu and Newell 1998 ). While ARs occur globally, their impacts are most prominent when they make landfall and interact with the topography of the west coast areas of midlatitude

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

1. Introduction Because of the smaller heat capacity of soil compared to water, the amplitudes of the diurnal cycle of surface total available turbulent (latent and sensible) heat flux and skin temperature tend to be greater over land than ocean. This likely amplifies lower-atmospheric heat energy in the afternoon, which often increases buoyant force, as measured by convective available potential energy (CAPE; Pielke 2001 ). As a result, continental precipitation is most frequently observed

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

precipitation, such as the polarization-corrected temperature ( Spencer 1986 ; Kidd 1998 ) and scattering index ( Ferraro et al. 1998 ), have achieved a degree of success (see Kidd et al. 1998 ). However, while empirically based schemes are generally simpler and computationally faster, physically based schemes generally provide more information on precipitation, such as types of hydrometeor and even atmospheric profiles of precipitation. The Goddard profiling algorithm (GPROF; Kummerow et al. 2001

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