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  • Waves, atmospheric x
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Vasily Lyulyukin, Rostislav Kouznetsov, and Margarita Kallistratova

1. Introduction Over the last years, an interest in theoretical and experimental studies of gravity–shear waves, such as Kelvin–Helmholtz billows (KHB), has increased because of their role in the generation of turbulence and vertical exchange of mass and heat in a stably stratified atmosphere. Ground-based remote sensing gives a visual two-dimensional picture of the wave motions in the fields of refractive index and/or wind velocity, providing valuable information on wave activity in the

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Margarita A. Kallistratova, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Valerii F. Kramar, and Dmitrii D. Kuznetsov

. , 52 , 75 – 91 , doi:10.1007/BF00123179 . Emeis, S. , 2009 : Derivation of vertical wind and turbulence profiles, the mixing-layer height, and the vertical turbulent exchange coefficient from sodar and ceilometer soundings in urban measurement campaigns. Meteorological and Air Quality Models for Urban Areas, A. Baklanov et al., Eds., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 133–141 , doi:10.1007/978-3-642-00298-4_13 . Gossard, E. , and Hooke W. , 1975 : Waves in the Atmosphere: Atmospheric

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Mikael Sjöholm, Nikolas Angelou, Per Hansen, Kasper Hjorth Hansen, Torben Mikkelsen, Steinar Haga, Jon Arne Silgjerd, and Neil Starsmore

WindScanner research infrastructure consists of both continuous-wave short-range and pulsed long-range remote sensing wind lidar systems. The short-range WindScanner technology is based on a coherent continuous-wave wind lidar instrument—that is, a ZephIR 150 manufactured by Natural Power (Malvern, United Kingdom), which is designed based on the principles outlined in Karlsson et al. (2000) , although it has been modified according to the description below. For agile beam scanning, a patented double

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C. R. Wood, R. D. Kouznetsov, R. Gierens, A. Nordbo, L. Järvi, M. A. Kallistratova, and J. Kukkonen

1. Introduction The scintillometry method is based on atmospheric refraction. For optical waves, the refraction is dominated by atmospheric temperature fluctuations, so one can confidently obtain the structure parameter of temperature . The understanding of itself is important for astronomical seeing and ground-to-satellite communications ( Travouillon et al. 2003 ; Tunick 2005 ), as well as understanding turbulence itself ( Coulter and Doran 2002 ). But the emphasis in scintillometer

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A. B. White, M. L. Anderson, M. D. Dettinger, F. M. Ralph, A. Hinojosa, D. R. Cayan, R. K. Hartman, D. W. Reynolds, L. E. Johnson, T. L. Schneider, R. Cifelli, Z. Toth, S. I. Gutman, C. W. King, F. Gehrke, P. E. Johnston, C. Walls, D. Mann, D. J. Gottas, and T. Coleman

1. Introduction Since the late 1990s, scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) and their partners have been studying the winter storms that impact the U.S. West Coast each year. Beginning in 2004, this work was organized under the umbrella of NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT-West; ; Ralph et al. 2005 ; Morss and Ralph 2007 ). This paper describes a California HMT-Legacy project that has three main

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Valery M. Melnikov, Richard J. Doviak, Dusan S. Zrnić, and David J. Stensrud

1. Introduction The intensity of Bragg backscatter from refractive index perturbations, at scales half the centimetric and metric wavelengths of atmospheric radars, is measured to estimate the refractive index structure parameter (e.g., Tatarskii 1971 ; Doviak and Zrnić 2006 , section 11.6). The value of strongly depends on turbulent mixing in gradients of the potential refractive index; these gradients are typically strongest at boundaries of water vapor layers. Large values of

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Jacob Berg, Jakob Mann, and Edward G. Patton

-Chen, T. , Xu M. , and Eberhard W. L. , 1992 : Estimations of atmospheric boundary layer fluxes and other turbulence parameters from Doppler lidar data . J. Geophys. Res. , 97 ( D17 ), 18 409 – 18 423 . Grachev, A. A. , Fairall C. W. , Hare J. E. , Edson J. B. , and Miller S. D. , 2003 : Wind stress vector over ocean waves . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 33 , 2408 – 2429 . Lothon, M. , Lenschow D. H. , and Mayor S. D. , 2009 : Doppler lidar measurements of vertical velocity

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Stuart Bradley

. , 2012 : Underestimation of mono-static sodar measurements in complex terrain . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 143 , 97 – 106 . Bingol, F. , Mann J. , and Foussekis D. , 2009 : Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain . Meteor. Z. , 18 , 189 – 195 . Blanc-Benon, P. , Juvé D. , and Comte-Bellot G. , 1991 : Occurrence of caustics for high-frequency acoustic waves propagating through turbulent fields . Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. , 2 , 271 – 278 . Bradley, S. G. , 2007

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