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Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, Donald A. Burrows, and Robert Keith

to the advection–diffusion equation using a mean wind. However, these models, while providing a general hazard area definition, do not explicitly model the effects of buildings on the flow and will therefore be less accurate. Another approach involves the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to predict gridded solutions for the atmospheric state variables and then to couple these CFD models with particle-based stochastic Lagrangian advection and diffusion codes. This method is more

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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

observed during 9 of the 10 intensive observation periods (IOPs; De Wekker et al. 2004 ). The LLJ and its associated wave motions have been observed in many other investigations in the Great Plains of the United States. Using a Doppler lidar in the Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study 1999 (CASES-99), Banta et al. (2002) , Newsom and Banta (2003) , and Blumen et al. (2001) recently showed that nocturnal LLJs were often at or below 100 m above ground level. As shown in the continuous

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Donald A. Burrows, Eric A. Hendricks, Steve R. Diehl, and Robert Keith

from a fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5; Grell et al. 1994 ) output file. RUSTIC can be run with either steady-state or time-varying boundary conditions. At present only two limited options exist for running RUSTIC in the time-varying mode. One option allows the user to specify a frequency, amplitude, and wavelength for a sine wave separately for each of the velocity components. The second option uses a file of varying

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M. A. Nelson, E. R. Pardyjak, M. J. Brown, and J. C. Klewicki

1. Introduction Urban landscapes affect the turbulent and mean flow characteristics throughout the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). Urban roughness influences the ASL turbulence on a vast range of length and time scales. Flow scales of interest span from the mesoscale to the smallest scales where energy is dissipated into heat. The ASL over urban roughness is subdivided into regions based on the extent to which the urban roughness affects the mean and turbulent flow characteristics ( Grimmond

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