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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

experiments were provided by the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) reanalysis (R-2) described previously by Kanamitsu et al. ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). R-2 has a triangular spectral truncation of 62 waves, or T62, corresponding to a horizontal resolution of about 200 km at the equator, and 28 vertical layers. In R-2, the observed 5-day mean precipitation based on rain gauge and satellite observations was adopted to adjust the soil moisture of the top soil

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Edson E. Sano, Laerte G. Ferreira, and Alfredo R. Huete

availability for mono- or multitemporal approaches is dependent on cloud and smoke-free atmospheric conditions. A good alternative for optical sensors is the microwave spectral region where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems operate. SAR sensors can penetrate into clouds and smoke and are independent of solar elevation and azimuth angles. Because of the SAR’s canopy penetration capability, significant relations between radar backscatter ( σ °, the amount of energy returned to the radar antenna per unit

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Piyachat Ratana, Alfredo R. Huete, and Laerte Ferreira

biophysical parameters: where ρ red and ρ NIR are the surface bidirectional reflectance factors for MODIS bands 1 (620–670 nm) and 2 (841–876 nm). The MODIS EVI was developed to optimize the vegetation signal with improved sensitivity in high biomass regions and reduced atmospheric and soil background noise. The EVI has been reported to be more responsive to canopy structural variations, including leaf area index, canopy type, plant physiognomy, and canopy architecture ( Huete et al. 2002 ): where ρ

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