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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

expect a weaker response relative to between DEFOR and CTL. A possible explanation for differences in TX90P in areas with small differences in land cover may be changed atmospheric circulation. As shown above, afforestation affects circulation in all of Europe, which in turn affects the characteristics of specific events such as heat waves. A small displacement of a high pressure blocking can change the characteristics of a heat wave. 4.5. Precipitation RCA4 shows only a few significant precipitation

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

1. Introduction The Australian continent is increasingly affected by extreme events, particularly those related to temperature ( Alexander et al. 2006 ; Donat and Alexander 2012 ; Donat et al. 2013 ; Perkins and Alexander 2013 ; Seneviratne et al. 2014 ; Lewis and Karoly 2014 ). Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are a key driver of these increases in continental extremes ( Cowan et al. 2014 ; Lewis and Karoly 2014 ) with trends superimposed on a background of high natural

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

and the extratropics via the excitation of atmospheric waves ( Schneck and Mosbrugger 2011 ). Schneck and Mosbrugger (2011) also noted that remote effects are sensitive to small initial changes, which suggests that the remote responses to land-cover change contain high uncertainties. Findell et al. (2006) argued that the extratropical response to complete tropical deforestation is difficult to distinguish from natural climate variability. In this study, we further investigate the influence of

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

1. Introduction It is well known that human-induced landscape changes have many impacts on local and regional-scale climate. Changes due to urbanization directly impact the nature of the surface and atmospheric properties of a region by altering the natural energy and hydrologic balances ( Oke 1984 ; Schmid and Oke 1992 ). The most documented effect linked to urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI), in which the air above the urban canopy is usually warmer than the air in the rural

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

where in many areas the population has significantly declined. 3. Data and methodology 3.1. Study area The region of study for this investigation will be the Southeast United States as defined by the regional analysis of McNider et al. (2011 , 2014) . Figure 3 provides a map of the study area, delineated by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) climate divisions, containing the states of Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and northern Florida. Though typically included in the

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