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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

systems (ships, aircraft, wind profilers, radars, and surface stations), was designed to study the complex and multifaceted properties of the North American summer monsoon: its onset, precipitation characteristics, the Gulf of California (GoC) low-level jet, gulf surges, easterly waves, tropical cyclone influences, orographic effects, mesoscale convective systems, and the diurnal cycle of convection ( Higgins et al. 2006 ). While the North American summer monsoon is not as dramatic as its Asian

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Wanqiu Wang and Pingping Xie

of the fourth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM4) when SSTs in the GoC were greater than 29.5°C. Mo and Juang (2003) investigated the influence of GoC SST anomalies on NAM rainfall with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Regional Spectral Model and found that warm (cold) SSTs in the GoC are responsible for more (less) rainfall along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Li et al

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

international team of NAME scientists from the United States, Mexico, and Central America carried out a major field campaign during the summer of 2004 to develop improved North American monsoon forecasts. NAME 2004 was an unprecedented opportunity to gather an extensive set of atmospheric, oceanic, and land surface observations in the core region of the North American monsoon, including northwestern Mexico, the southwestern United States, and adjacent oceanic areas. The campaign involved scientists from

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Arthur V. Douglas and Phillip J. Englehart

focuses on development of a NAME historical climatology for selected transient synoptic features that affect the NAME region. The four features included in this investigation are inverted troughs (warm- and cold-core systems as detected at 50 kPa), cold-core cutoff lows, open troughs in the westerlies, and surface fronts. Bryson and Lowry (1955) first identified the importance of easterly waves on the monsoon of northern Mexico and the desert Southwest. The importance of easterly waves in tropical

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Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

Atmospheric Research (NCAR) S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar (S-Pol), placed ∼100 km north of Mazatlán, Mexico, on the coast west of the SMO; and two Servício Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) Doppler radars—one at Guasave farther north on the coastal plain and one at Cabo San Lucas at the tip of the Baja California peninsula. A central goal of NAME is to characterize and understand convective and mesoscale processes in the complex terrain of the core monsoon region and their interaction within the

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Enrique R. Vivoni, Hugo A. Gutiérrez-Jurado, Carlos A. Aragón, Luis A. Méndez-Barroso, Alex J. Rinehart, Robert L. Wyckoff, Julio C. Rodríguez, Christopher J. Watts, John D. Bolten, Venkataraman Lakshmi, and Thomas J. Jackson

voltage standing wave method to estimate the relative probe impedance ( Cosh et al. 2005 ), which is used to infer the soil moisture content. Five soil moisture readings were taken daily in each plot (see the letters A – E in Fig. 3d ). At each location, soil temperature ( T s in °C) was measured at three depths (∼1, 5, and 10 cm) using a soil thermometer at the five sites. Atmospheric conditions were also determined near the plot at ∼1 m above the ground. Air temperature ( T a in °C) and

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Paquita Zuidema, Chris Fairall, Leslie M. Hartten, Jeffrey E. Hare, and Daniel Wolfe

vertical resolution were typically launched four times per day, increasing to six times per day during the intensive observation periods. In total, 150 usable soundings of Vaisala type RS80-15G were launched. They have a dry bias in the upper troposphere ( Johnson et al. 2007 ). The sondes used within this paper have not received the quality control procedures documented in Johnson et al. (2007) but visual comparison did not note large discrepancies between the two sonde datasets. Other atmospheric

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Kingtse C. Mo, Eric Rogers, Wesley Ebisuzaki, R. Wayne Higgins, J. Woollen, and M. L. Carrera

1. I. Introduction During the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) field campaign (1 July–15 September; Higgins et al. 2006 ), an extensive set of enhanced atmospheric soundings was gathered over the southwest United States, northern Mexico, and the Caribbean. There were 22 stations located over northern Mexico and the southwest United States ( Fig. 1 ), with seven of them (Puerto Penasco, Kino Bay, Empalme, Los Mochis, Loreto, Mazatlan, and La Paz) located along the Gulf of

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

northwestern Mexico coincide with the increased vertical transport of moisture by convection ( Douglas et al. 1993 ) and southerly winds flowing up the Gulf of California ( Baden-Dagan et al. 1991 ). Rainfall in this North American monsoon region appears to be associated with transients (e.g., gulf surges, easterly waves, tropical storms) rather than the mean flow ( Fuller and Stensrud 2000 ; Englehart and Douglas 2001 ; Berbery 2001 ; Ellis et al. 2004 ). Figure 1 (adapted from Douglas et al. 1993

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