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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn McMurdie, and Robert Conrick

up to a height of 8 km during unblocked regimes ( McMurdie et al. 2018 ). Sub-barrier-scale processes may include melting and/or evaporation-induced down-valley flow ( Steiner et al. 2003 ; Asencio and Stein 2006 ; Thériault et al. 2012 ), shear-induced turbulent layers ( Medina et al. 2005 , 2007 ), and small-scale mountain waves over windward ridges ( Garvert et al. 2007 ; Minder et al. 2008 ). In many cases, patterns of precipitation over complex terrain can be approximated by a steady

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Ousmane O. Sy, Simone Tanelli, Stephen L. Durden, Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Kwo-Sen Kuo, Noppasin Niamsuwan, Robert M. Beauchamp, V. Chandrasekar, Manuel Vega, and Michael P. Johnson

-band measurements (only available from APR in OLYMPEx) will be shown but only for illustration purposes. APR is a cross-track scanning (±25°) radar with a 30-m range sampling ( Sadowy et al. 2003 ). D3R (Ku- and Ka-band radar), with a range sampling of 150 m and maximum range of 30 km, was operated from the Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE) site (in Barrie, Ontario) during GCPEx, and from the NPOL site (near Taholah, Washington) during OLYMPEx. Owing to the spatial resolution and sensitivity of

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Hannah C. Barnes, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Angela K. Rowe, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

1. Introduction Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) waves are a form of instability that occurs within a statically stable environment that has strong vertical wind shear. Atmospheric manifestation of this instability was first investigated for its role in clear-air turbulence (e.g., Atlas et al. 1970 ; Browning and Watkins 1970 ; Dutton and Panofsky 1970 ; Browning 1971 ). Turbulence associated with KH waves has also been suggested to pose an aircraft icing hazard because of its microphysical impact

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

1. Introduction Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) waves have been observed in a variety of atmospheric settings, including cumulonimbus anvils ( Petre and Verlinde 2004 ), sea breeze circulations ( Sha et al. 1991 ), and within midlatitude baroclinic systems and fronts (e.g., Wakimoto et al. 1992 ; Houze and Medina 2005 ; Friedrich et al. 2008 ; Houser and Bluestein 2011 ; Medina and Houze 2015 , 2016 ; Barnes et al. 2018 ). KH waves have also been reported in regions of complex terrain, where

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

. Cayan , and A. B. White , 2006 : Flooding on California’s Russian River: Role of atmospheric rivers . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L13801 , . 10.1029/2006GL026689 Ralph , F. M. , P. J. Neiman , G. N. Kiladis , K. Weickman , and D. W. Reynolds , 2011 : A multiscale observational case study of a Pacific atmospheric river exhibiting tropical–extratropical connections and a mesoscale frontal wave . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 139 , 1169 – 1189 , https

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

eight years of SSM/I satellite observations . J. Hydrometeor. , 9 , 22 – 47 , . 10.1175/2007JHM855.1 Neiman , P. J. , B. J. Moore , A. B. White , G. A. Wick , J. Aikins , D. L. Jackson , J. R. Spackman , and F. M. Ralph , 2016 : An airborne and ground-based study of a long-lived and intense atmospheric river with mesoscale frontal waves impacting California during CalWater-2014 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 144 , 1115 – 1144 , https

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

. Twice, on 13 and 17 November, Lake Quinault rose at a rate of 0.15 m h −1 for 12–18 h and nearly flooded the DOW radar site on the shore of the lake ( Figs. 1 and 2 ). These two storms were “atmospheric rivers,” in which long plumes of moisture in the warm sector just ahead of the cold front are advected by the low-level jet ahead of the front. When this moisture plume intersects the mountains, great enhancement of the frontal precipitation occurs ( Neiman et al. 2008 ; Houze 2012 , 2014

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David J. Purnell and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

events and progressively decreases in WS and PF events. While also follows the same basic trend as , its sensitivity to frontal type is weaker: for WS (0.11) is only slightly larger than that for WF (0.09), suggesting a similar degree of windward enhancement. Thus, the large differences in between these cases are mainly attributable to stronger leeside precipitation suppression in WF events. This suppression is promoted by and large , which favors large-amplitude mountain wave breaking and

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

. NASA Global Hydrology Center DAAC, accessed 8 May 2018, . 10.5067/GPMGV/OLYMPEX/APR3/DATA201 Durran , D. R. , 1990 : Mountain waves and downslope winds. Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain , Meteor. Monogr. , No. 23, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 59–81, . 10.1007/978-1-935704-25-6_4 Durran , D. R. , and J. B. Klemp , 1982 : On the effects of moisture on the Brunt–Väisälä frequency . J

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William Ryan Currier, Theodore Thorson, and Jessica D. Lundquist

water . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 1391 – 1401 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49712454903 . 10.1002/qj.49712454903 Dingman , S. L. , 2008 : Physical Hydrology. Waveland Press, 646 pp. Flerchinger , G. N. , W. Xaio , D. Marks , T. J. Sauer , and Q. Yu , 2009 : Comparison of algorithms for incoming atmospheric long-wave radiation . Water Resour. Res. , 45 , W03423 , doi: 10.1029/2008WR007394 . 10.1029/2008WR007394 Frick , C. , A. Seifert , and H. Wernli , 2013 : A bulk

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