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David A. R. Kristovich, Luke Bard, Leslie Stoecker, and Bart Geerts

the wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions influencing gravity wave location and intensity, it seems unlikely that the needed specific placement of the gravity waves occurs frequently enough to explain the common upwind lake influences. It is also feasible that seeding of the downwind lake-effect clouds by snow produced by upwind snowbands could enhance snow production over the downwind lake. Natural cloud seeding by snow produced above a lake-effect boundary layer was found to greatly

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David A. R. Kristovich, Richard D. Clark, Jeffrey Frame, Bart Geerts, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen A. Kosiba, Neil F. Laird, Nicholas D. Metz, Justin R. Minder, Todd D. Sikora, W. James Steenburgh, Scott M. Steiger, Joshua Wurman, and George S. Young

. Hebble , 2000 : Observations of the entrainment zone in a rapidly entraining boundary layer . J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 3145 – 3160 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<3145:OOTEZI>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<3145:OOTEZI>2.0.CO;2 Young , G. S. , D. A. R. Kristovich , M. R. Hjelmfelt , and R. C. Foster , 2002 : Rolls, streets, waves, and more: A review of quasi-two-dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 997 – 1001 , doi: 10

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Peter G. Veals, Theodore W. Letcher, and Justin R. Minder

relatively warm body of water (e.g., Peace and Sykes 1966 ; Hozumi and Magono 1984 ; Niziol 1987 ; Kristovich and Laird 1998 ). Typical lake-effect atmospheric profiles feature a moist-neutral or unstable convective boundary layer that extends to a capping stable layer or inversion at ~1–4 km above the lake surface, limiting the vertical extent of convection ( Niziol 1987 ; Byrd et al. 1991 ; Kristovich et al. 2003 ; Schroeder et al. 2006 ). This convection can organize into a rich spectrum of

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Jake P. Mulholland, Jeffrey Frame, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Scott M. Steiger, Karen A. Kosiba, and Joshua Wurman

microphysical scheme ( Thompson et al. 2008 ) was utilized along with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) longwave and shortwave radiation schemes ( Iacono et al. 2008 ), the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) land surface model (LSM; Smirnova et al. 2016 ), the revised Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) Monin–Obukov surface-layer scheme ( Jiménez et al. 2012 ), and the new Shin–Hong ( Shin and Hong 2015 ) BL parameterization. No

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Dan Welsh, Bart Geerts, Xiaoqin Jing, Philip T. Bergmaier, Justin R. Minder, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

: 10.1175/1525-7541(2003)4<264:CORPOB>2.0.CO;2 . Wilson , J. W. , 1977 : The effect of Lake Ontario on precipitation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 105 , 207 – 214 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<0207:EOLOOP>2.0.CO;2 . Young , G. S. , D. A. R. Kristovich , M. R. Hjelmfelt , and R. C. Foster , 2002 : Rolls, streets, waves, and more: A review of quasi-two-dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 997 – 1001 , doi: 10

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Peter G. Veals, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3283:NSOTIB>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2000)128<3283:NSOTIB>2.0.CO;2 DeCosmo , J. , K. B. Katsaros , S. D. Smith , R. J. Anderson , W. A. Oost , K. Bumke , and H. Chadwick , 1996 : Air–sea exchange of water vapor and sensible heat: The Humidity Exchange over the Sea (HEXOS) results . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 , 12 001 – 12 016 , https://doi.org/10.1029/95JC03796 . 10.1029/95JC03796 Durran , D. R. , 1990 : Mountain waves and downslope winds. Atmospheric Processes over Complex

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Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

rolls in cold air over water: Buoyancy characteristics of coherent plumes detected by an airborne radar . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 134 , 2373 – 2396 , doi: 10.1175/MWR3203.1 . 10.1175/MWR3203.1 Young , G. , D. Kristovich , M. Hjelmfelt , and R. C. Foster , 2002 : Rolls, streets, waves, and more: A review of quasi-two-dimensional structures in the atmospheric boundary layer . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 997 – 1001 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(2002)083<0997:RSWAMA>2.3.CO;2 . 1 According to

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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

: The Eta model, gravity waves, and quasigeostrophic diagnostics . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 77 , 519 – 528 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0519:ESSDIF>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0519:ESSDIF>2.0.CO;2 Bergeron , T. , 1965 : On the low-level redistribution of atmospheric water caused by orography. Proc. Int. Conf. on Cloud Physics , Toronto, ON, Canada, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 96–100. Bergmaier , P. T. , B. Geerts , L. S. Campbell , and W. J. Steenburgh , 2017 : The OWLeS

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W. James Steenburgh and Leah S. Campbell

Ontario (see Brown et al. 2007 ). The WSR-88D data were obtained from the NCEI Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) archive in level-II format ( Crum et al. 1993 ), whereas the WKR data were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/Earth Observing Laboratory (NCAR/EOL) OWLeS dataset catalog. b. WRF modeling We examine IOP2b using the WRF Model control simulation described by Campbell and Steenburgh (2017) , who investigated the mechanisms responsible for the Tug Hill

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

–7 January 2014) 1) Mesoscale overview IOP7 began with disorganized convection around 2100 UTC 6 January 2014 ( Figs. 9a,b ). A synoptic-scale short-wave trough approached the region from the northwest between 0400 and 0600 UTC on 7 January, organizing and intensifying the convection into a coherent southwest–northeast-oriented LLAP band ( Fig. 9c ). After passage of the short wave, the band settled south and became a classic intense zonally oriented LLAP storm ( Fig. 9d ). The storm continued throughout

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