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T. Connor Nelson, James Marquis, Adam Varble, and Katja Friedrich

. Atmos. Sci. , 74 , 835 – 853 , . 10.1175/JAS-D-16-0221.1 Sachsperger , J. , S. Serafin , and V. V. Grubišić , 2015 : Lee waves on the boundary-layer inversion and their dependence on free-atmospheric stability . Front. Earth. Sci. , 3 , 70 , . 10.3389/feart.2015.00070 Schumacher , R. , 2019 : CSU mobile radiosonde data, version 1.0. UCAR/NCAR–Earth Observing Laboratory, accessed 1 September 2019

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

-terrain simulations had progressively earlier DCI owing to both enhanced standing mountain waves and stronger low-level upslope flows. Furthermore, when the terrain was raised (lowered), wind shear increased (decreased) and CAPE decreased (increased) relative to the control simulation. These environmental differences resulted in the fastest supercell-to-MCS upscale growth within the control simulation, with progressively slowed (nonexistent) upscale growth in simulations with higher (lower) terrain height. While

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

. Maximum terrain height varied from ~3495 m in the HIGH-40 experiment to ~1000 m in the LOW-40 experiment ( Fig. 2 ). The HIGH-40 experiment required the use of a greater vertical sound wave propagation coefficient (0.5 instead of the default 0.1) to damp artificial waves. Comparisons between simulations with varying vertical sound wave propagation coefficients displayed negligible differences for pertinent atmospheric fields. All model parameterization schemes used in these additional terrain

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

generate a reliable flood warning system. Prior to this project, there were no streamflow observations in the headwaters of the catchment, despite the societal and economic impacts of flash flooding in the region. The large-scale RELAMPAGO field campaign brought together hydrologists and atmospheric scientists to observe specific extreme convective events and their associated hydrologic impacts. Within the scope of the RELAMPAGO IOP, the hydrometeorology group performed the first streamflow

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

circulations modulate global circulations by disrupting the propagation of Rossby waves generated by tropical convection ( Grimm and Ambrizzi 2009 ). Therefore, ENSO impacts convection globally. In the United States, increased rainfall from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) ( Anderson and Arritt 2001 ) and increased precipitation over the southern states and Gulf of Mexico ( Dai 2001 ; Lee et al. 2014 ) are correlated with El Niño, while more severe weather events in the southeast United States occur

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

.1 simulation using boundary conditions from the ECMWF fifth-generation atmospheric reanalysis (ERA5) ( Copernicus Climate Change Service 2019 ). The ERA5 is an hourly reanalysis dataset with 0.25° horizontal resolution and 37 vertical layers from 1000 to 1 hPa. Here, the simulation primarily is used to downscale the reanalysis boundary conditions with better-resolved topography and to examine the storm and the rapidly evolving environment leading up to it. The WRF simulation outer domain, covering much of

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