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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

and outflow regions with unprecedentedly high spatiotemporal resolution ( Bell et al. 2016 ; Doyle et al. 2017 ). Technical details of the TCI dropsondes can be found in Black et al. (2017) . In addition to the TCI dropsondes, a variety of other observations were also collected to depict the spatiotemporal evolution of Patricia. For example, satellite atmospheric motion vector (AMV; Poteat 1973 ; Franklin et al. 1990 ; Sears and Velden 2012 ) observations, flight-level, Stepped Frequency

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David R. Ryglicki, Daniel Hodyss, and Gregory Rainwater

upwind) to the bow wave (approximately 1000 km upwind). In addition, as a result of the blocking, Part III illustrated a localized high pressure region on the upwind side of the outflow. This dynamic high, also called a “Bernoulli high” in Part III , was argued to be a result of the dissipation of kinetic energy from both the environment and the outflow and could also be explained using (1) . The effects of the high pressure then extend 1000 km upwind, which is approximately the Rossby

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

the vortex can be resistant to the environment shear to some extent. Reasor et al. (2004) argued that the tilt asymmetry of the vortex would be damped by radiation of sheared vortex Rossby waves. Recent studies have also identified a reduction in vortex tilt under moderate shear preceding the TC intensification (e.g., Miyamoto and Nolan 2018 ; Rios-Berrios et al. 2018 ). Moreover, the diabatic heating and consequent secondary circulation in TCs are thought to greatly enhance that resistance

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Daniel J. Cecil and Sayak K. Biswas

Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 26 , 597 – 611 , doi: 10.1109/36.7685 . 10.1109/36.7685 Smith , E. K. , 1982 : Centimeter and millimeter wave attenuation and brightness temperature due to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor . Radio Sci. , 17 , 1455 – 1464 , doi: 10.1029/RS017i006p01455 . 10.1029/RS017i006p01455 Swift , C. T. , D. C. DeHority , P. G. Black , and J.-Z. Chein , 1984 : Microwave remote sensing of ocean surface wind speed and rain rates over tropical storms. Frontiers of

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James D. Doyle, Jonathan R. Moskaitis, Joel W. Feldmeier, Ronald J. Ferek, Mark Beaubien, Michael M. Bell, Daniel L. Cecil, Robert L. Creasey, Patrick Duran, Russell L. Elsberry, William A. Komaromi, John Molinari, David R. Ryglicki, Daniel P. Stern, Christopher S. Velden, Xuguang Wang, Todd Allen, Bradford S. Barrett, Peter G. Black, Jason P. Dunion, Kerry A. Emanuel, Patrick A. Harr, Lee Harrison, Eric A. Hendricks, Derrick Herndon, William Q. Jeffries, Sharanya J. Majumdar, James A. Moore, Zhaoxia Pu, Robert F. Rogers, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Da-Lin Zhang

(e.g., rapid scan atmospheric motion vectors) during Joaquin reveal new aspects of the hurricane outflow-layer structure. In Patricia, high-resolution dropsonde observations capture finescale TC structures such as an elevated wind maximum in the inner core, oscillatory potential temperature features that are consistent with gravity waves, and detailed inner-core structure from the surface to the tropopause. Surface wind speed swaths obtained by HIRAD for the three aforementioned storms

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T. Ghosh and T. N. Krishnamurti

situation. ANN mimics this idea to get an optimum solution in a given situation when past observations are available. There are different kinds of ANN configurations and architectures. These are now widely used in computer science (image processing, speech recognition, etc.) and other fields as well. This method gives an optimal solution for a particular situation on the basis of past experience. The concept of ANN has also been used to derive better solutions for many atmospheric science problems. A

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T. Connor Nelson, Lee Harrison, and Kristen L. Corbosiero

strong convection for safety, or relatively large radar volumes that cannot detect small-scale convective features. While the eyewall embodies the primary ascending branch of the secondary circulation ( Shapiro and Willoughby 1982 ), convection outside of the eyewall can be excited by vortex Rossby waves ( Black et al. 2002 ; Corbosiero et al. 2006 ) or consist of convective clouds stretched and deformed into intense banded structures ( Moon and Nolan 2015 ). The most recent work on dropsonde

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

1. Introduction Unlike the lower- and midlevel dynamics of a tropical cyclone (TC), a topic that has appeared frequently in the literature for nearly 60 years (e.g., Palmén and Riehl 1957 ), the upper levels and the outflow of TCs have not been as active an area of study until very recently because of insufficient upper-level observations ( Jordan 1952 ). With the advent of satellite and satellite-track winds, now more commonly known as atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs; Velden et al. 1997

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

skin sea surface temperature (SSTir) coincident with the atmospheric profile observations. This is becoming an increasingly critical observational input as a new generation of coupled air–sea TC prediction models demand data inputs from the ocean as well as from the atmosphere. The advent of GPS dropsonde atmospheric profiling ( Hock and Franklin 1999 ; Franklin et al. 2003 ; Wang et al. 2015 ) has played a key role in contributing to this need and in demonstrating improved model track and

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Patrick Duran and John Molinari

of the background environment. More recent literature (e.g., Wirth 2003 ) has noted that strong, shallow temperature inversions immediately above the cold-point tropopause are a common feature in the tropics, now known as the tropopause inversion layer (TIL). On the planetary scale, TIL formation and maintenance has been tied to planetary wave dynamics ( Grise et al. 2010 ) and vertical gradients of radiative heating across the tropopause ( Randel et al. 2007 ), but the relative contributions of

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