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P. Alexander and A. de la Torre

profiles (of whatever atmospheric variable) are usually not obtained on strictly or nearly horizontal or vertical directions. Because essentially all techniques depart from horizontal or vertical sounding lines, the detected wavelengths must be distinguished from the original Cartesian horizontal or vertical ones and appropriately reconstructed according to wave constant phase surfaces’ orientation and the sounding direction (a simple two-dimensional example is shown in Fig. 1 , where two soundings

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Yue Li, Gerald R. North, Ping Yang, and Bryan A. Baum

( Yanai and Murakami 1970 ; Reed and Recker 1971 ; Wallace and Chang 1972 ). WK99 conducted space–time spectral analysis on nearly 18 years of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data observed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites and isolated various equatorial wave modes, including the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), Kelvin, n = 1 equatorial Rossby (ER), mixed Rossby–gravity (MRG), and inertial-gravity (IG) waves. It should be emphasized that

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William H. Hooke and Kenneth R. Hardy

FEBRUARY1975 WILLIAM H. HOOKE AND KENNETH R. HARDY 31Further Study of the Atmospheric Gravity Waves over the Eastern Seaboard on 18 March 1969 WILLIA3/f H. I-IOOKE Wave Propagation Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, Colo. 80302 KENNETH R. HARDY~Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass. 01730(Manuscript received 14 February 1974, in revised form 17

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James S. Risbey, Didier P. Monselesan, Terence J. O’Kane, Carly R. Tozer, Michael J. Pook, and Peter T. Hayman

atmospheric flow over the Southern Hemisphere for events at each location. The standard composite shown here contains contours of geopotential height anomalies , shaded surface temperature T surf anomalies, vectors for wave activity flux W s , and gray regions where . The composites for winter frost events at Merredin are shown in Fig. 8 . The main feature depicted by in the period well before the event (from day −10 to day −5) is a SAM-like three-wave structure with highs in each of the ocean

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Stephen A. Cohn, Vanda Grubiššićć, and William O. J. Brown

turbulence within the LTZ reported by glider pilots. Although on average the winds in the LTZ were weak and sometimes reversed, Holmboe and Klieforth describe instantaneous flow as inhomogeneous turbulence, with the air ““in a state of continuous mixing.”” Lester and Fingerhut (1974) present similar in situ (primarily aircraft) observations within and around the LTZ from the Rocky Mountain Lee Wave Program and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Chinook Study ( Lilly and Toutenhoofd

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Cristian Muñoz and David M. Schultz

1. Introduction Cutoff lows are closed upper-level low pressure systems that detach from the main westerlies, mostly by Rossby wave-breaking events (e.g., Ndarana and Waugh 2010 ) or by stratospheric air intrusions from the polar reservoir to midlatitudes through tropopause folds (e.g., Keyser and Shapiro 1986 ; Price and Vaughan 1993 ; Wernli and Sprenger 2007 ). The spatial distribution of cutoff lows varies with latitude. In the subtropics and midlatitudes, cutoff lows occur mostly over

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Željko Večenaj, Stephan F. J. De Wekker, and Vanda Grubišić

study. 2. Data This study uses data collected during T-REX, which took place in Owens Valley, California, in March and April of 2006 in an effort to explore the structure and evolution of atmospheric rotors ( Grubišić et al. 2008 ). Owens Valley lies east of the southern Sierra Nevada, which is the tallest, steepest, quasi-two-dimensional topographic barrier in the contiguous United States. Mountain waves and rotors are known to reach particularly striking amplitude and strength there

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Joshua D. Hoover, David R. Stauffer, Scott J. Richardson, Larry Mahrt, Brian J. Gaudet, and Astrid Suarez

in the lower atmosphere and to reveal the presence of mesogamma or submeso motions (i.e., gravity waves, drainage flows, etc.). Whereas Sun et al. (2002 , 2004) thoroughly examine the occurrence of three distinct turbulent events over the flat terrain of Kansas using data from the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study October 1999 (CASES-99) field program, our study focuses on complex terrain. The terrain setting of the RS network is similar to that of many cities in the northeastern

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R. J. Hung, T. Phan, and R. E. Smith

)ABSTRACT Penetrative convection, thunderstorms, squall lines, etc., all generate atmospheric gravity waves whichcan be observed by a ground-based ionospheric Doppler sounder array. Sources of these waves can bedetermined from reverse ray tracing computations. Case studies of gravity waves associated with isolatedtornadic storms on 13 January 1976 were summarized to establish the minimum data sampling time requiredfor correct spectral analysis and ray tracing computations. It was concluded that the

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J. J. Hicks and J. K. Angell

observations at three wavelengths revealing horizontally braided-appearing atmospheric structures in (preferentially) visually clear atmospheric regions are discussed and compared with accompanyingradiosonde data. The hypothesis that the observed phenomena are breaking gravitational waves is consistent with electromagnetic scattering theory and the meteorological parameters.1. Introduction During May-June of 1966 a six-week experimentalatmospheric research program was conducted at Wallops Island, Va

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