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Audrey Delpech, Claire Ménesguen, Yves Morel, Leif N. Thomas, Frédéric Marin, Sophie Cravatte, and Sylvie Le Gentil

poorly understood. Different physical mechanisms have been proposed to explain their formation, relying on a cascade of mechanisms transferring energy from a deep energy source (generally generated through the propagation at depth of atmospheric variability or currents instabilities) to the mean jet-structured circulation (see Fig. 2 of Ménesguen et al. 2019 ). Earlier studies have shown that two-dimensional turbulence induces an inverse cascade, with energy transferred toward larger scales. On a

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François Ascani, Eric Firing, Julian P. McCreary, Peter Brandt, and Richard J. Greatbatch

interactions . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 43 , 2682 – 2698 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-13-099.1 . Saltzman , B. , 1957 : Equations governing the energetics of the larger scales of atmospheric turbulent in the domain of wave number . J. Meteor. , 14 , 513 – 523 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1957)014<0513:EGTEOT>2.0.CO;2 . Schott , F. A. , L. Stramma , and J. Fischer , 1995 : The warm water inflow into the western tropical Atlantic boundary regime, spring 1994 . J. Geophys. Res. , 100 , 24 745 – 24 760

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Nils Brüggemann and Carsten Eden

. , and K. S. Gage , 1985 : A climatology of atmospheric wavenumber spectra of wind and temperature observed by commercial aircraft . J. Atmos. Sci. , 42 , 950 – 960 ,doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1985)042<0950:ACOAWS>2.0.CO;2 . Nikurashin , M. , and R. Ferrari , 2011 : Global energy conversion rate from geostrophic flows into internal lee waves in the deep ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L08610 , doi: 10.1029/2011GL046576 . Rhines , P. , 1977 : The dynamics of unsteady currents. Marine

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Yang Jiao and W. K. Dewar

wind-driven and tidally driven mixing involves the excitation of internal waves by topographic scattering or the propagation of near-inertial energy from the mixed layer into the interior. Once in the internal wave field, the accepted idea is that a variety of mechanisms (e.g., induced diffusion, resonant triad interactions, and stratified turbulence; see Lindborg 2006 ) drive a forward cascade to small scales where shears promote classical K–H instability. Of the total energy cascading to small

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Thomas Meunier, Enric Pallàs Sanz, Miguel Tenreiro, José Ochoa, Angel Ruiz Angulo, and Christian Buckingham

link between layering and mixing is within reach, making such links for the case of LCEs might be a more challenging prospect. Warm-core rings are, in general, near-surface ventilated eddies ( Dewar 1987 , 1988 ), and atmospheric forcing in the Gulf of Mexico is particularly intense, including hurricanes and cold fronts. These latter processes result in pronounced momentum and heat fluxes that mix and cool the ocean as well as generate inertia gravity waves (IGWs) that penetrate deep into the

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C. Ménesguen, S. Le Gentil, P. Marchesiello, and N. Ducousso

scaled on the ratio of the stratification N over the Coriolis parameter f in order to avoid spurious gravity wave activity ( Lindzen and Fox-Rabinovitz 1989 ; Snyder et al. 1993 ). As in Molemaker et al. (2010) , Nadiga (2014) highlights a substantial forward energy cascade. In his configuration, the forward cascade occurs for scales smaller than 5 km with increasing amplitude for higher Rossby number values. Brüggemann and Eden (2015) also revisit an Eady flow experiment applied to an

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A. M. Treguier, C. Lique, J. Deshayes, and J. M. Molines

1. Introduction At midlatitudes, the atmospheric heat transport is performed by transient disturbances, large-scale cyclones, and anticyclones, as discussed, for example, by Kuo (1956) . At the same latitudes, in the ocean, both the time-mean circulation and the transient eddies contribute to the meridional heat transport ( Smith et al. 2000 ). The importance of the time-mean circulation, in the case of the oceanic heat transport, is due to the existence of large-scale currents such as the

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Sandy Grégorio, Thierry Penduff, Guillaume Sérazin, Jean-Marc Molines, Bernard Barnier, and Joël Hirschi

) throughout the whole basin and on much longer time scales, either from ocean simulations driven by atmospheric reanalyses (in laminar or eddying regimes) or from coupled ocean–atmospheric simulations (mostly in the laminar regime). Most studies to date about the AMOC variability in the eddying regime have been concerned with the response of the AMOC to a prescribed atmospheric variability. Using ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), Biastoch et al. (2008) and Hirschi et al. (2013) have documented

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J. H. LaCasce and J. Wang

, W. , 1978 : Uniform potential vorticity flow. Part I: Theory of wave interactions and two-dimensional turbulence . J. Atmos. Sci. , 35 , 774 – 783 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1978)035<0774:UPVFPI>2.0.CO;2 . Bretherton , F. P. , 1966 : Critical layer instability in baroclinic flows . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 92 , 325 – 334 , doi: 10.1002/qj.49709239302 . Held , I. , R. Pierrehumbert , S. Garner , and K. Swanson , 1995 : Surface quasi-geostrophic dynamics . J. Fluid Mech

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Thomas Meunier, Claire Ménesguen, Richard Schopp, and Sylvie Le Gentil

formation of vertical variability. These two experiments show that the meddy’s vertically sheared velocity field intrinsically transforms horizontal variability in the tracer field into vertical variability. This transformation of horizontal into vertical gradients can be discussed following Haynes and Anglade’s (1997) and Klein et al.’s (1998) approach, defining the local wave vector of the tracer distribution: , where χ is the tracer concentration. In cylindrical coordinates using the

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