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Lee-Lueng Fu

Moore (1981) was invoked to explain the 90-day variability. Most of the previous studies focused on the reflection of Kelvin waves at the eastern boundary of the basin and the interference between the reflected Rossby waves with Kelvin waves in reinforcing the wind-forced ocean response. Numerical experiments were performed by Han et al. (1999) and Han (2005) to test the effects of the eastern boundary reflection. In these experiments, a damper was placed at the eastern boundary to absorb the

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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

: Correction of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data for nonisostatic sea level response to atmospheric pressure in the Japan/East Sea. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 . L02304, doi:10.1029/2003GL018487 . Philander , S. G. H. , 1978 : Forced oceanic waves. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. , 16 , 15 – 46 . Platzman , G. W. , 1984 : Normal modes of the World Ocean. Part IV: Synthesis of diurnal and semidiurnal tides. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 14 , 1532 – 1550 . Ponte , R. M. , 1992 : The sea level response of a

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

that do depend on Earth’s rotation (e.g., coastal Kelvin waves). Nevertheless, the result demonstrates that a significant fraction of the basin-wide sea level oscillation is indeed independent of Earth’s rotational effects. In a companion paper, Menemenlis et al. (2007) describe in more detail local physical processes responsible for establishing a dynamic balance between winds near Gibraltar Strait and Atlantic–Mediterranean sea level difference. e. Comparison with atmospheric pressure effects

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The sea level difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea has been attributed mostly to the following: tides (e.g., Brandt et al. 2004 ), atmospheric pressure fluctuations (e.g., Tsimplis and Josey 2001 ), steric contributions (e.g., Cazenave et al. 2002 ), and geostrophic or hydraulic controls within the Strait of Gibraltar (e.g., Ross and Garrett 2000 ). Some studies ( Fukumori et al. 2007 ; García-Lafuente et al. 2002a , b ; Garrett 1983 ), however

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

data ( Fig. 8 ), which also reinforce the finding that the circulation at 1000 m began to drop near the end of the record. 4. Atmospheric forcing What is the variability in wind forcing that drives the changes in circulation of the subtropical gyre? Thompson and Wallace (2000) defined the Antarctic Oscillation (a.k.a. SAM) as the leading principal component of the 850-hPa height anomaly in the region south of 20°S. It accounts for 27% of the variance in monthly mean sea level pressure fields

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Victor Zlotnicki, John Wahr, Ichiro Fukumori, and Yuhe T. Song

(1980) compared their 1976–78 transport estimate with gridded atmospheric pressure data from which they derived the surface wind stress. They reached several remarkable conclusions: The BP difference across Drake Passage correlated more strongly with winds averaged over all longitudes and 45°–65°S than with local winds. The pressure difference spectrum was about twice as energetic as the individual spectra from the north and south sides. The southern BP time series correlated much more strongly

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

circulation as the basis for quantitative studies of climate dynamics. The solution combined many ocean observations with a numerical model to produce a dynamical description of the changing ocean, which serves as a basis for understanding future changes in ocean circulation. It is expected to serve also as a basis for computations of not directly observable changes of integral ocean quantities that are consistent with the model physics, all available data, and the atmospheric forcing fields. Results

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as observational constraints, was undertaken by Li and Wunsch (2003 , 2004 ). (c) Adjoint models have been used to study bottom topography as a control variable in tidal modeling and gravity wave dynamics in shallow water models of shelf seas ( Das and Lardner 1991 , 1992 ; Heemink et al. 2002 ; Lardner et al. 1993 ; ten Brummelhuis et al. 1993 ). In idealized scenarios, Losch and Wunsch (2003) successfully optimized the bottom topography in the limit

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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

waves (not shown). The fact that Fig. 4 shows these gradient maxima cluster around a particular SSH value suggests that such features have a preferred propagation path (in SSH space). e. Frequency distributions of the frontal pattern Having demonstrated that the fronts of the Southern Ocean can be traced reliably using SSH, we now use the weekly time series of SSH maps to characterize the variability of the ACC fronts in space and time. Variability in the path of the frontal jets is shown in Fig

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