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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

atmospheric forcing that generated the oceanic variability. As discussed in section 1 , the low-frequency variability of the KE is largely controlled by large-scale wind stress curl variations that lead to oceanic adjustment via baroclinic Rossby wave propagation, which also initiates frontal-scale inertial fluctuations. The observations and linear Rossby wave models suggest that the KE is primarily forced by wind stress curl anomalies with a delay of 3–4 years ( Ceballos et al. 2009 ; Qiu 2003 ). Hence

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

turbulent mixing scheme or the length scale of the SST front (i.e., the SST gradient). Song et al. (2006 , their Figs. 4 and 5) show MABL structure and vertical motion similar to ours using a realistic configuration over the Gulf Stream with the Fifth-Generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5), but they interpret the vertical motion as a “system of up and downdrafts” rather than a gravity wave. Feliks et al. (2010) find a standing wave

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Hyodae Seo, Young-Oh Kwon, Terrence M. Joyce, and Caroline C. Ummenhofer

low-frequency dynamics involving the high-latitude wave-breaking and wave-blocking events ( Strong and Magnusdottir 2008 ) influence the position of the North Atlantic eddy-driven jet and the NAO ( Rivière and Orlanski 2007 ; Woollings et al. 2010b ). The basin-scale quasi-steady circulation response to extratropical SST forcing often resembles the leading mode of the internal atmospheric variability ( Peng and Robinson 2001 ; Deser et al. 2004 ; Frankignoul and Sennéchael 2007 ). The

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, and Akira Kuwano-Yoshida

anticyclonic anomaly over the SST anomaly is consistent with the observed downward heat flux anomaly as atmospheric forcing onto the SST anomaly. In the monthly anomaly field for July, a circumglobal wave train pattern was observed over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere (not shown). These wave activity injections observed must be a manifestation of atmospheric internal variability or a response to SST anomalies in a maritime domain other than the midlatitude North Pacific. In August, anomalies of the

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Ryu Saiki and Humio Mitsudera

, whose spacing is regular, is organized even from a random ice field in the MIZ. Streaky winds with roll-like cells in the atmospheric boundary layer may also initiate generating perturbations in the MIZ. Once a regular pattern forms, inhomogeneous ice drift velocity that is dependent upon various ice conditions ( Steele et al. 1989 ), as well as the radiation stress by wind waves ( Wadhams 1983 ), may enhance the ice-band pattern further. In the future, we will evaluate these contributions to the

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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

gravity wave dynamics becomes wider (not shown). Signs of the response change across the threshold value in both real and imaginary parts, with enhanced magnitudes. These features are consistent with change of coefficients of the first term in Eq. (12) as a function of the background wind speed. The transfer functions for numerical model output and observations are obtained as complex regression coefficients between Fourier components of atmospheric responses and oceanic forcing. Figure 14 shows

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Shinichiro Kida, Bo Qiu, Jiayan Yang, and Xiaopei Lin

play a critical role in determining the upper oceanic circulation and sea surface temperature (SST) in the Japan Sea. Recent studies show that the SST variability affects not only the local atmospheric conditions ( Hirose and Fukudome 2006 ) but also the East Asian monsoonal climate ( Yamamoto and Hirose 2011 ; Seo et al. 2014 ). Fig . 1. The topography and straits of the Japan Sea. The black solid arrows show the direction of the annual-mean Throughflow at the straits. The dashed arrows indicate

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Masayo Ogi, Bunmei Taguchi, Meiji Honda, David G. Barber, and Søren Rysgaard

, recent model studies have suggested that the sea-ice variability influences the atmospheric circulation through the formation of stationary Rossby wave trains and modification of the storm track (e.g., Honda et al. 1999 ; Alexander et al. 2004 ). It is also suggested that initializing the sea-ice variability may in turn enhance the predictability of atmospheric circulations in seasonal forecasts ( Balmaseda et al. 2010 ; Doblas-Reyes et al. 2013 ). Recently, Honda et al. (2009) examined impacts

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Satoru Okajima, Hisashi Nakamura, Kazuaki Nishii, Takafumi Miyasaka, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Bunmei Taguchi, Masato Mori, and Yu Kosaka

wave propagation and instability, and atmospheric teleconnection patterns . J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 1363 – 1392 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1363:BWPAIA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1363:BWPAIA>2.0.CO;2 Smirnov , D. , M. Newman , and M. A. Alexander , 2014 : Investigating the role of ocean–atmosphere coupling in the North Pacific Ocean . J. Climate , 27 , 592 – 606 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00123.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00123.1 Smirnov , D. , M

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

, 2008a : High resolution simulation of the global coupled atmospheric–ocean system: Description and preliminary outcomes of CFES (CGCM for the Earth Simulator). High Resolution Numerical Modelling of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Vol. 4, K. Hamilton and W. Ohfuchi, Eds., Springer, 31–45 . Komori , N. , W. Ohfuchi , B. Taguchi , H. Sasaki , and P. Klein , 2008b : Deep ocean inertia–gravity waves simulated in a high-resolution global coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM . Geophys. Res. Lett

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