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Mark R. Jury

Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR)-capable aircraft ( Moninger et al. 2003 ) departing from St. Lucia and Martinique at 1800 and 2000 UTC 24 December 2013. The radiosonde profiles include temperature, dewpoint, wind speed, and wind direction, while the AMDAR aircraft profiles include wind and vertical gust. Zonal propagating waves are studied by Hovmöller time–longitude plots on 14°N of 6-hourly 180-km-resolution National Centers for Environmental Prediction–U.S. Department of Energy (NCEP–DOE) Atmospheric

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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Mark R. Jury

-ATBD): Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—Daily. NOAA CDR Program Doc. CDRP-ATBD-0526, 46 pp . Leroux , S. , N. M. Hall , and G. N. Kiladis , 2011 : Intermittent African easterly wave activity in a dry atmospheric model: Influence of the extratropics . J. Climate , 24 , 5378 – 5396 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00049.1 . Lin , Y. L. , K. E. Robertson , and C. M. Hill , 2005 : Origin and propagation of a disturbance associated with an African easterly wave as a precursor of Hurricane Alberto

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Jason L. Bell and Lisa C. Sloan

1. Introduction Over the last century global annual mean temperatures have been rising at an unprecedented rate ( Mann and Jones 2003 ; Mann et al. 1998 ), approximately 0.4° to 0.8°C since the late nineteenth century ( Folland et al. 2001 ). These increases in temperature parallel increases in global atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, which have intensified the greenhouse effect, trapping more energy in the troposphere, warming air temperatures, and strengthening the hydrologic cycle. Based on

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

extratropical oceans in two ways: locally, through changes in the surface winds, and, remotely, via tropically generated, coastally trapped Kelvin waves. Although the effect on the ocean circulation by surface winds is local, the surface wind may in itself be remotely forced by atmospheric wave motions. Kelvin waves associated with El Niño warm events suppress upwelling of denser and nutrient-rich water masses, and those associated with El Viejo (La Niña) cold events enhance such upwelling. Both alter the

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Peter K. Snyder

atmospheric teleconnections. This study confirms the role of planetary wave forcing in communication of a tropical signal to the extratropics and is in agreement with the study by Gedney and Valdes ( Gedney and Valdes 2000 ). This study also indicates that the Eurasian climate response is most likely caused by changes in the Amazon and that the Amazon has little influence outside of Eurasia as suggested by other studies. In this paper it has been shown how tropical deforestation could affect the

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Hector Chikoore and Mark R. Jury

, which may align according to hemispheric-scale atmospheric Rossby waves. The Kalahari vegetation fraction is quite low, so an evaluation of soil moisture feedback would provide more insight. The main contribution of this work is the examination of vegetation–climate dynamics in southern Africa at the intraseasonal time scale using 10-day NDVI data over 20 years. This is in contrast to earlier work using monthly NDVI data over a decade (e.g., Gondwe and Jury 1997 ; Richard and Poccard 1998

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Steven T. Fiorino and James Correia Jr

.S. government. References Bosart , L. F. and F. Sanders . 1986 . Mesoscale structure in the megalopolitan snowstorm of 11–12 February 1983. Part III: A large-amplitude gravity wave. J. Atmos. Sci 43 : 924 – 939 . Bosart , L. F. and A. Seimon . 1988 . A case study of an unusually intense atmospheric gravity wave. Mon. Weather Rev 116 : 1857 – 1886 . Einaudi , F. , W. L. Clark , D. Fua , J. L. Green , and T. E. VanZandt . 1987 . Gravity waves and convection in Colorado

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Kwang-Yul Kim, James J. O'Brien, and Albert I. Barcilon

, J. 1969 . Atmospheric teleconnection from the equatorial Pacific. Mon. Weather Rev 97 : 163 – 172 . Boulanger , J-P. and C. Menkes . 1995 . Propagation and reflection of long equatorial waves in the Pacific Ocean during the 1992–1993 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res 100 : 25041 – 25059 . Boulanger , J-P. and C. Menkes . 1999 . Long equatorial wave reflection in the Pacific Ocean from TOPEX/POSEIDON data during the 1992–1998 period. Clim. Dyn 15 : 205 – 225 . Carton , J. A

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A. Birol Kara, Charlie N. Barron, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Temel Oguz

between the atmosphere and ocean, the internal ocean dynamics, tidal currents, and wave propagation, etc., the influence of teleconnection patterns cannot be neglected. In particular, climatic variability in the SSH anomaly are found to be related with the climate indices during the SSH shift mode of 1997–2002. Therefore, some of the overall variations in the SSH anomalies can be attributed to large-scale atmospheric events over the Black Sea during periods when the indices are correlated

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