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Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, Anna Wilson, Laurel DeHaan, and Brian Kawzenuk

). Ralph et al. (2011) demonstrated that a persistent MFW lengthened atmospheric river conditions during landfall of an AR in Washington, directly leading to large rainfall totals in the affected area. Neiman et al. (2016) documented the case of three consecutive MFWs propagating along the boundary of an AR making landfall in Northern CA. The three waves acted to reinforce baroclinicity in the region of the existing AR and cold front, leading to the longest-duration AR on record at the CA Department

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Hyun Il Choi, Xin-Zhong Liang, and Praveen Kumar

form of Topography-based Hydrological Model (TOPMODEL) into the Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model (LEAF-2) for land–surface processes in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) in order to represent surface and subsurface downslope lateral transport of groundwater. Mölders and Rühaak (2002) coupled with an atmospheric model a hydrothermodynamic soil–vegetation scheme that incorporates surface and channel runoff. Since the runoff component was solved at a 1-km grid that differs from

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Abedeh Abdolghafoorian and Paul A. Dirmeyer

Abstract

The interactions between land and atmosphere (with terrestrial and atmospheric coupling segments) play a significant role in weather and climate. A predominant segment of land-atmosphere (L-A) feedbacks is the coupling between soil moisture (SM) and surface heat fluxes, the terrestrial coupling leg. The lack of high-quality long-term globally distributed observations, however, has hindered a robust, realistic identification of the terrestrial leg strength on a global scale. This exploratory study provides insight into how SM signals are translated into surface flux signals through the construction of a global depiction of the terrestrial leg from several recently developed global, gridded, observationally- and satellite-based data sets. The feasibility of producing global gridded estimates of L-A coupling metrics is explored. Five weather and climate models used for subseasonal to seasonal forecasting are confronted with the observational estimates to discern discrepancies that may affect their ability to predict phenomena related to L-A feedbacks, such as drought or heat waves. The terrestrial feedback leg from observations corroborates the “hot spots” of L-A coupling found in modeling studies, but the variances in daily time series of surface fluxes differ markedly. Better agreement and generally higher confidence are seen in metrics using latent heat flux than sensible heat flux. Observational metrics allow for clear stratification of model fidelity that is consistent across seasons, despite observational uncertainty. The results highlight the impact of SM on partitioning available surface energy and illustrate the potential of global observationally-based data sets for the assessment of such relationships in weather and climate models.

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James Cleverly, Chao Chen, Nicolas Boulain, Randol Villalobos-Vega, Ralph Faux, Nicole Grant, Qiang Yu, and Derek Eamus

large D on stomatal function ( Ball et al. 1987 ; Leuning 1995 ) were included in the calculation of E 0 by using the Water, Atmosphere, Vegetation, Energy and Solutes (WAVES) model, which is a soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer scheme that employs PM and maintains balance in model complexity among carbon, energy, and water processes ( McCallum et al. 2010 ; Zhang and Dawes 1998 ). 3. Results Surface soil moisture content had a strong influence over atmospheric moisture gradients across each

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

(red line) and melting layer based on radar reflectivity in an atmospheric column, modified after Mizukami et al. (2013) . The on-the-ground rain–snow-transition elevation can be inferred from remotely sensed observations of atmospheric snow level (i.e., the atmospheric elevation at which snow becomes the dominant form of precipitation). Frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radars ( Johnston et al. 2009 , 2017 ) can estimate the snow level above their locations by identifying the elevation

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Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Haiden Mersiovsky, and Michael G. Bosilovich

with the southern oscillation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109 , 813 – 829 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 Hu , H. , F. Dominguez , Z. Wang , D. A. Lavers , G. Zhang , F. M. Ralph , 2017 : Linking atmospheric river hydrological impacts on the U.S. West Coast to Rossby wave breaking . J. Climate , 30 , 3381 – 3399 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0386.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0386.1 Huning , L. S

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Carolina A. Bieri, Francina Dominguez, and David M. Lawrence

1. Introduction and background Advancing our understanding of the mechanisms by which the land affects the atmosphere can lead to improvements in models of the coupled atmosphere–land–ocean system. Additionally, information gained from these efforts can inform atmospheric prediction on longer time scales, as the land surface is a slowly varying control on atmospheric processes ( Betts et al. 1996 ; National Research Council 2010 ). Enhanced knowledge of the land–atmosphere connection can

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R. Garreaud

heavy and extreme precipitation events in central Chile were associated with atmospheric rivers impinging on the subtropical Andes prior to the arrival of the cold front. The term atmospheric river refers to narrow (<1000 km) but elongated (>2000 km) corridors of intense water vapor transport in the lower troposphere, generally located in the broader warm and prefrontal zone of the polar front and particularly well defined over ocean areas (see Ralph and Dettinger 2011 for a review on atmospheric

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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

. 13c ). These anabatic mountain–valley circulations, typical systems of mesoscale thermal convection in the Rocky Mountains, occur when mountain slopes warm from radiative forcing, causing warm air to rise upslope, which eventually cools and sinks to collect in valleys ( Defant 1951 ; Rampanelli et al. 2004 ). Turnipseed et al. (2004) identify buoyancy-driven daytime upslope winds as a primary driver of regional atmospheric flow in this region, along with mountain gravity waves and strong

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

the Philippines ( Dollery 2018 ). Figures 6 and 7 support that Kelvin’s intensifications on both 17 and 19 February had been taking place under the influences of the ER wave and the ITCZ. Note that a band of enhanced water vapor (i.e., TCW) as well as the moisture convergence extend from Kelvin southward to the southern shore of Australia. The southward movement of the vortex (i.e., Kelvin) occurred along with the low-to-midlevel atmospheric moisture advections in the “convergence” area within

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