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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

vegetation in modern times, with significant changes of temperature and humidity distribution up to 500 hPa ( Bonan 1997 ). Model simulations confirm that significant atmospheric effects have been caused by human modification of the landscape over the U.S. central plains ( Weaver and Avissar 2001 ). A strong influence of the land use and land cover on the diurnal temperature range, with the greatest range over bare soil and the smallest range over forest-covered soil, has been observed by Gallo et al

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

MG02 ; Lemonsu et al. 2004 ). The urban model is implemented within version 3 of the Community Land Model (CLM3; Dickinson et al. 2006 ), which is the land surface component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM; Collins et al. 2006 ). The model is evaluated by comparing simulated fluxes and surface temperatures with those observed at two urban sites. 2. Model description a. Atmospheric model coupling requirements The atmospheric model within CCSM requires fluxes of sensible and latent

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