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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

multidecadal variability ( Delworth et al. 1993 ; Enfield and Mestas-Nunez 1999 ), there has been little study on the mechanism of the PMV. A few recent studies do indicate that the PMV arises from the Pacific Ocean. Through a comprehensive observational analysis, Deser et al. (2004) found a robust multidecadal linkage between the North Pacific and tropical Pacific. They inferred that the PMV originates from the tropical Pacific and then impacts the North Pacific through atmospheric teleconnection. In

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

unmodified National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis in the configuration discussed by P. Heimbach (2008, unpublished manuscript) lead to the inference that changes in the circulation required by the optimization are quantitative rather than qualitative, the variability structure remaining largely the same. An exception to this statement is that the mean Atlantic MOC is qualitatively shifted in magnitude. Similar comparisons (not shown

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

diffusivities or viscosities: instead the TRM Parsons model compellingly illustrates the roles of eddies in a gyre circulation. In the TRM formulation, eddy effects appear as a force in the momentum equations—a fact extensively exploited here and in many atmospheric eddy–mean flow interaction studies. It is shown that eddies transfer momentum downward in the ocean interior and buoyancy poleward in the ocean mixed layer. The TRM Sverdrup relation is simply modified in the presence of eddies. The next section

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Onno Bokhove and Vijaya Ambati

1. Introduction There is evidence that planetary-scale Rossby waves have been generated off the western coast of the United States, either by unstable coastal boundary currents or by coastal waves matching in frequency and scale (cf. Kelly et al. 1998 ). Bokhove and Johnson (1999) , therefore, investigated the matching of planetary Rossby modes with coastal shelf modes in a cylindrical basin. Otherwise said, linear free modes were calculated with so-called semianalytical “mode matching

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J. A. Whitehead

that although over geological time the solar forcing is modified by orbital changes, the ocean surface temperature has evidently not always responded linearly. Climate records reveal occasional changes of atmospheric temperature of many degrees within “fast” times (order of 50 yr). Some of these are attributed to abrupt transitions of the thermohaline circulation regime ( Broecker et al. 1985 ; Boyle 1990 ; Keigwin and Jones 1994 ; Keigwin et al. 1994 ; Bard et al. 1996 ; Broecker 1997

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