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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

. The resulting wave is therefore identical to a subcritical lee wave generated by the lowest overtopping streamline, which we will refer to as the LOTS. High-resolution nonlinear numerical simulations of atmospheric lee waves demonstrate that the supercritical lee wave drag scales with the trough-to-crest height of the LOTS, which is observed to be O ( U / N ) ( Stein 1992 ; Welch et al. 2001 ; Eckermann et al. 2010 ). Thus, atmospheric wave drag parameterizations posit that the wave drag over

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

data over bathymetric features in the Caribbean Sea. A study of internal waves generated by mesoscale eddies by Clément et al. (2016) finds correlation between eddy decay and higher-frequency energy content in moored velocity records. We are unaware of other direct low-frequency lee-wave observations in the ocean and one has to revert to atmospheric observations of mountain waves for further observational studies. Tidal motions play only a subordinate role in the atmosphere, making the

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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

. Generally more narrow than the adjacent shelf is wide, canyons tend to cause ageostrophic flows that enhance cross-shelf exchange and strengthen wind-driven up- and downwelling flows ( Klinck 1989 ; Hickey 1997 ; Kämpf 2009 ; Allen and Hickey 2010 ). Breaking of focused internal waves, hydraulic control over ridges and bends, and enhanced ageostrophic flows all lead to small-scale turbulent processes such that canyons are known to be hotspots of enhanced turbulent dissipation and diapycnal

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

-to-supercritical transition of a hydraulic flow, which implies blockage of certain types of internal waves from propagating upstream. So far, a quantitative evaluation of the flow hydraulics, which is important for understanding the communication of the Indian Ocean with the Pacific Ocean through the Lifamatola Passage, has not been conducted. Fig . 2. Conservative Temperature (Θ) section along the thalweg of the Lifamatola Passage. Flow is to the right, and the locations of numbered CTD stations can be found in Fig. 1b

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

1. Introduction Oceanic processes that have an expression in sea surface height (SSH) occur over a range of time scales. Since the early 1990s satellite altimetry has been used to examine SSH variability related to processes at intraseasonal periods such as mesoscale eddy motions ( Chelton et al. 2011 ) or baroclinic Rossby wave propagations ( Qiu and Chen 2005 ) and at longer periods, including studies of regional and global sea level rise ( Church and White 2011 ). Some higher

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

1. Introduction Flow interactions over space and time with abrupt topography, such as with small-scale islands and deep ocean ridges, can significantly impact regional to large-scale ocean circulation through intense turbulent mixing, formation of mesoscale wakes and eddy shedding behind islands, submesoscale upwelling and downwelling, and generation of lee internal waves ( Baines 1995 ). Along with ocean variability due to topographic features, islands and atolls also modify the atmospheric

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Jody M. Klymak

drag law, in contrast to quadratic drag laws in atmospheric parameterizations of nonpropagating wave drag. 5. Summary and discussion Simulations of mean flow over topography that include large scales exhibit significant energy removal from the mean flow (and hence, form drag) over and above that exerted by steady flow over the smaller scales. This is despite the fact that flow over the large scales cannot emit propagating internal waves because the topographic wavenumbers k < f / u 0 . In steady

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

Jody Klymak provided invaluable guidance. Amala Mahadevan, Amit Tandon, and an anonymous reviewer provided helpful comments for clarifying the manuscript. This work was supported by NSF Grants OCE-1756093, OCE-1829082, and OCE-1829190. REFERENCES Alexander , M. J. , 2003 : Gravity wave fluxes . Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences , Academic Press , 1699 – 1705 , https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-12-227090-8/00309-2 . 10.1016/B0-12-227090-8/00309-2 Arbic , B. K. , and G. Flierl , 2004

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

: Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics . Cambridge University Press, 745 pp. 10.1017/CBO9780511790447 Walker , J. D. A. , and K. Stewartson , 1972 : The flow past a circular cylinder in a rotating frame . Z. Angew. Math. Phys. , 23 , 745 – 752 , https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01602641 . 10.1007/BF01602641 Whitt , D. B. , and L. N. Thomas , 2013 : Near-inertial waves in strongly baroclinic currents . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 43 , 706 – 725 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-12-0132.1 . 10.1175/JPO

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