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S. Joseph Munchak, Robert Meneghini, Mircea Grecu, and William S. Olson

nonuniformity within the footprint. Even outside of rain, cross talk between wind, water vapor, and cloud liquid water can bias wind retrievals ( O’Dell et al. 2008 ; Rapp et al. 2009 ). Also, rain creates an additional source of surface waves, which can either enhance or damp surface backscatter, depending on angle, frequency, and wind speed ( Stiles and Yueh 2002 ; Seto and Iguchi 2007 ). Backscattering from the rain itself can also enhance the measured surface cross section, particularly for

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Eun-Kyoung Seo, Sung-Dae Yang, Mircea Grecu, Geun-Hyeok Ryu, Guosheng Liu, Svetla Hristova-Veleva, Yoo-Jeong Noh, Ziad Haddad, and Jinho Shin

. , Hufford G. A. , and Cotton M. G. , 1993 : Propagation modeling of moist air and suspended water/ice particles at frequencies below 1000 GHz. Atmospheric Propagation Effects Through Natural and Man-Made Obscurants for Visible to MM-Wave Radiation , AGARD Conf. Proc. AGARD-CP-542, 3-1–3-11 . Lin, Y.-L. , Farley R. D. , and Orville H. D. , 1983 : Bulk parameterization of the snow field in a cloud model . J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 22 , 1065 – 1092 , doi: 10

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F. Joseph Turk, Z. S. Haddad, and Y. You

simulations should cover the full range of the variability in the underlying atmospheric and surface conditions, with sufficient skill to represent the multichannel TB that would have been measured by actual MW radiometer observations. Once created for each sensor in the GPM constellation, the observational “database” with its associated TB is available offline as the a priori knowledge for probabilistic, Bayesian-based precipitation retrievals, for subsequent precipitation retrievals separately from each

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Stephen Joseph Munchak, Sarah Ringerud, Liang Liao, Ziad Haddad, Bartie L. Kelley, and Steven F. McLaughlin

precipitation profiles derived from the Ku-band radar observations are used to simulate profiles of single-scattering properties, including the bulk extinction coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, the asymmetry parameter, and the backscattering coefficient. These are combined with the extinction properties of cloud and atmospheric gases to compute the bulk single-scattering properties of each range bin in the profile. The bulk single-scattering properties, along with the temperature profiles and the

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Takuji Kubota, Toshio Iguchi, Masahiro Kojima, Liang Liao, Takeshi Masaki, Hiroshi Hanado, Robert Meneghini, and Riko Oki

from the linear relationship are related to an engineering factor. The DPR transmits dozen of pulses per angle bin and receives reflective echo from surface, rain, and so on. Each received echo is converted to an 8-bit digital number called a “count value” on the DPR processing system. Then, these count values are averaged on board and are stored in the DPR L1 products. To avoid confusion, two count values are defined. One is “the independent echo,” which is obtained from the DPR’s transmitter wave

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