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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

forecasts and development of regional extreme event thresholds using data from HMT-2006 and COOP observers . J. Hydrometeor. , 11 , 1288 – 1306 . Ralph, F. M. , Neiman P. J. , Kiladis G. N. , Weickman K. , and Reynolds D. W. , 2011 : A multi-scale observational case study of a Pacific atmospheric river exhibiting tropical–extratropical connections and a mesoscale frontal wave . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 139 , 1169 – 1189 . Smith, B. L. , Yuter S. E. , Neiman P. J. , and Kingsmill D. E

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

1. Introduction Precipitation is known to be highly variable over a range of scales in both space and time (e.g., Georgakakos et al. 1994 ; Fabry 1996 ; Uijlenhoet et al. 2003 ; Berne et al. 2004a , b ; Ciach and Krajewski 2006 ). This has major implications for both our understanding of atmospheric processes (e.g., Trenberth 1998 ; Henzing et al. 2006 ) and the quality of remotely sensed precipitation (e.g., Gosset and Zawadzki 2001 ; Steiner et al. 2003 ; Gosset 2004 ; Miriovski et

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

depth of ascent over the windward slope depends on the size and shape of the barrier, the wind speed, and the stability of the flow as given by the linear gravity wave theory ( Colle 2004 ; Smith and Barstad 2004 ; Kunz and Kottmeier 2006 ). Jiang (2003) found that, within some orographic flows, the release of latent heat due to condensation can cause low-level air to ascend up to twice the height of dry air. Smith (2003) and Smith and Barstad (2004) developed a linear model that scales

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

1. Introduction Large-aperture (near infrared) boundary layer scintillometers are becoming standard, commercially available, tools for estimating the turbulent sensible heat flux in the atmospheric surface layer over scales of hydrological and meteorological interest, from a few hundreds of meters to several kilometers (e.g., de Bruin et al. 1995 ; Chehbouni et al. 1999 ; Meijninger and de Bruin 2000 ; Cain et al. 2001 ; Lagouarde et al. 2002 ; Meijninger et al. 2002b ; Beyrich et al

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

long history of examining a particular period and region to document QPF performance, including the early paper by Bosart (1980) that documented errors in the operational forecast model of that era. A key driver of HMT is the recognition that the current metric and precipitation threshold used to assess forecast skill are inadequate for many users, particularly for large precipitation events. Currently, the official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s National Weather Service

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

1. Introduction Extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods are potentially devastating, with serious implications for individuals, ecosystems, and societies. Human activities and the environment are greatly affected by such climatic extremes. During the rainy monsoon season (early summer) in Japan, heavy rainfall events frequently occur, owing to the intrusion of warm humid air into a stationary front known as the baiu–mei-yu–changma (hereafter baiu for short) front. Many

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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

transient weather phenomena such as tropical cyclones, gulf surges, easterly waves, and upper-level troughs ( Hales 1972 ; Adams and Comrie 1997 ; Fuller and Stensrud 2000 ; Bordoni and Stevens 2006 ; Higgins et al. 2006 ). During these disturbed meteorological regimes, convection does not end after sunset; rather, it continues intensifying and organizing well into the nighttime hours as it moves across the coastal plain to the Gulf ( Lang et al. 2007a ). Moreover, early morning precipitation

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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

liquid water content associated with a particular value of reflectivity (kg km −3 ). The quantity DB is the depth of a radar beam as a function of range (km), ZE is the effective radar reflectivity factor (mm 6 m −3 ) within a radar sample volume BW is the angular width of the radar beam between the half-power points (3 dB; BW equals 0.95° for WSR-88D), BH represents the beam center height for a given elevation angle and range under the standard atmospheric refraction conditions, and θ k is the

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